Responses to host amyloids and curli amyloid fibrils of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are mediated through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Here we show that TLR2 alone was not sufficient for mediating responses to curli. Instead, transfection experiments with human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and antibody-mediated inhibition of TLR signalling in human macrophage-like (THP-1) cells suggested that TLR2 interacts with TLR1 to recognize curli amyloid fibrils. TLR1/TLR2 also serves as a receptor for tri-acylated lipoproteins, which are produced by E. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the presence of multiple TLR1/TLR2 ligands on intact bacterial cells, an inability to produce curli amyloid fibrils markedly reduced the ability of E. coli to induce TLR2-dependent responses in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that curli amyloid fibrils from enterobacterial biofilms significantly contribute to TLR1/TLR2-mediated host responses against intact bacterial cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas