Tobacco and alcohol: the relation to pulmonary tuberculosis in household contacts.

N. Gyawali, R. Gurung, N. Poudyal, R. Amatya, R. Shrestha, L. K. Khanal, Suraj Timilsina, S. K. Bhattacharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Tuberculosis is transmitted commonly by droplet nuclei and facilitated by weak immune system. Lowered immunity may be associated with cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption. The co-relationship between these all factors to TB should be explored. This study aims to detect the hidden household contacts (HC) cases early and to examine the relative contribution of tobacco and alcohol use to the risk of TB. Across-sectional study was in Dharan among HCs. From June 2009 to May 2010, 184 index cases with sputum smear positive for AFB and their 802 HCs were included. Three sputum specimens were collected from each HCs and examined microscopically for AFB detection. AFB were detected in sputum of 13 (1.6%) HCs. The association between habits (alcohol user and smoking) and TB was found except with chewing tobacco user (P > 0.05). The risk of contact TB was 4 and 8 times greater in smoker (OR = 3.94 95% CI = 1.26-12.26, P < 0.05) and alcoholic (OR = 8.23 95% CI = 2.71-24.98, P < 0.05) HCs respectively. This study has revealed smoking and alcohols as the risk factors for tuberculosis. Effective campaign to discourage use of alcohol and tobacco, and awareness programme about the mode of transmission of TB are needed in community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-128
Number of pages4
JournalNepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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