Tissue engineering, morphogenesis, and regeneration of the periodontal tissues by bone morphogenetic proteins

Ugo Ripamonti, A Hari Reddi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

139 Scopus citations


Tissue engineering is the emerging field of science developing techniques for fabrication of new tissues for replacement based on principles of cell and developmental biology and biomaterials. Morphogenesis is the cascade of pattern formation and the attainment of form of the various organs and the organism as a whole. The periodontium consists of the periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Bone has considerable potential for regeneration and therefore is a prototypic model for tissue engineering. The three main ingredients for tissue engineering are regulatory signals, responding stem cells, and extracellular matrix. Recent advances in molecular biology of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have set the stage for tissue engineering of bone and related tissues, including the periodontium. Bone-derived BMPs, with a collagenous matrix as carrier, induced cementum and alveolar bone regeneration in surgically created furcation defects in the primate. It is noteworthy that there was morphogenesis of periodontal ligament and a faithful insertion of Sharpey's fibers into cementum. In the same furcation model, recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (rhOP-1, also known as BMP-7), in conjunction with the collagenous carrier, induced extensive cementogenesis with insertion of Sharpey's fibers into the newly formed cementum. The observation that BMPs induce cementogenesis and periodontal ligament formation indicates that these proteins may have multiple functions in vivo not limited to cartilage and bone induction. The rapid advances in the molecular biology of BMPs and their receptors bode well for novel strategies to engineer the regeneration of the periodontal tissues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)154-163
Number of pages10
JournalCritical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • bone morphogenetic proteins
  • cementogenesis
  • extracellular matrix
  • osteogenesis
  • periodontal regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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