The tissue distribution and macromolecular binding of benzene was studied over a dose range spanning nine-orders of magnitude to determine the nature of the dose-response and to establish benzene's internal dosimetry at doses encompassing human environmental exposures. [14C]-Benzene was administered to B6C3F1 male mice at doses ranging between 700 pg/kg and 500 mgkg body wt. Tissues, DNA and protein were analyzed for [14C]-benzene content between 0 and 48 h post-exposure (625 Ng/kg and 5 μg/kg dose) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). [14C]-Benzene levels were highest in the liver and peaked within 0.5 h of exposure. Liver DNA adduct levels peaked at 0.5 h, in contrast to bone marrow DNA adduct levels, which peaked at 12-24 h. Dose-response assessments at 1 h showed that adducts and tissue available doses increased linearly with administered dose up to doses of 16 mg/kg body wt. Tissue available doses and liver protein adducts plateau above the 16 mg/kg dose. Furthermore, a larger percentage of the available dose in bone marrow bound to DNA relative to liver. Protein adduct levels were 9- to 43-fold greater than DNA adduct levels. These data show that benzene is bioavailable at human-relevant doses and that DNA and protein adduct formation is linear with dose over a dose range spanning eight orders of magnitude. Finally, these data show that the dose of bioactive metabolites is greater to the bone marrow than the liver and suggests that protein adducts may contribute to benzene's hematoxicity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research