Nuclear hormone receptors are hormone-regulated transcription factors that play critical roles in chordate development and homeostasis. Aberrant nuclear hormone receptors have been implicated as causal agents in a number of endocrine and neoplastic diseases. The syndrome of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH) is a human genetic disease characterized by an impaired physiological response to thyroid hormone. RTH is associated with diverse mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor β-gene. The resulting mutant receptors function as dominant negatives, interfering with the actions of normal thyroid hormone receptors coexpressed in the same cells. We report here that RTH receptors interact aberrantly with a newly recognized family of transcriptional corepressors variously denoted as nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR), retinoid X receptor interacting protein-13 (RIP-13), silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), and thyroid hormone receptor-associating cofactor (TRAC). All RTH receptors tested exhibit an impaired ability to dissociate from corepressors in the presence of thyroid hormone. Two of the RTH mutations uncouple corepressor dissociation from hormone binding; two additional RTH mutants exhibit an unusually strong interaction with corepressor under all hormone conditions tested. Finally, artificial mutants that abolish corepressor binding abrogate the dominant negative activity of RTH mutants. We suggest that an altered corepressor interaction is likely to play a critical role in the dominant negative potency of RTH mutants and may contribute to the variable phenotype in this disorder.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism