Three Toxoplasma gondii Dense Granule Proteins Are Required for Induction of Lewis Rat Macrophage Pyroptosis

Yifan Wang, Kimberly M. Cirelli, Patricio D.C. Barros, Lamba Omar Sangaré, Vincent Butty, Musa A. Hassan, Patricia Pesavento, Asli Mete, Jeroen Saeij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, Toxoplasma rapidly induces programmed cell death (pyroptosis), which prevents Toxoplasma replication, possibly explaining the resistance of the Lewis rat to Toxoplasma Using a chemical mutagenesis screen, we identified Toxoplasma mutants that no longer induced pyroptosis. Whole-genome sequencing led to the identification of three Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole-localized dense granule proteins, GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43, that are individually required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. Macrophage infection with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites led to greatly reduced cell death rates and enhanced parasite replication. Lewis rat macrophages infected with parasites containing a single, double, or triple deletion of these GRAs showed similar levels of cell viability, suggesting that the three GRAs function in the same pathway. Deletion of GRA42 or GRA43 resulted in GRA35 (and other GRAs) being retained inside the parasitophorous vacuole instead of being localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Despite having greatly enhanced replication in Lewis rat macrophages in vitro, Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites did not establish a chronic infection in Lewis rats. Toxoplasma did not induce F344 rat macrophage pyroptosis, but F344 rats infected with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites had reduced cyst numbers. Thus, these GRAs determined parasite in vivo fitness in F344 rats. Overall, our data suggest that these three Toxoplasma dense granule proteins play a critical role in establishing a chronic infection in vivo, independently of their role in mediating macrophage pyroptosis, likely due to their importance in regulating protein localization to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane.IMPORTANCE Inflammasomes are major components of the innate immune system and are responsible for detecting various microbial and environmental danger signals. Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, the parasite rapidly activates the NLRP1 inflammasome, resulting in pyroptosis and elimination of the parasite's replication niche. The work reported here revealed that Toxoplasma GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43 are required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. GRA42 and GRA43 mediate the correct localization of other GRAs, including GRA35, to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. These three GRAs were also found to be important for parasite in vivo fitness in a Toxoplasma-susceptible rat strain, independently of their role in NLRP1 inflammasome activation, suggesting that they perform other important functions. Thus, this study identified three GRAs that mediate the induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis and are required for pathogenesis of the parasite.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalmBio
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 8 2019

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Toxoplasma
Parasites
Macrophages
Vacuoles
Inflammasomes
Proteins
Inbred F344 Rats
Membranes
Cell Death
Infection
Pyroptosis
Mutagenesis
Cysts
Immune System
Cell Survival
Genome
Mortality

Keywords

  • Dense granule proteins
  • macrophages
  • NLRP1 inflammasomes
  • pyroptosis
  • Toxoplasma gondii

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

Cite this

Three Toxoplasma gondii Dense Granule Proteins Are Required for Induction of Lewis Rat Macrophage Pyroptosis. / Wang, Yifan; Cirelli, Kimberly M.; Barros, Patricio D.C.; Sangaré, Lamba Omar; Butty, Vincent; Hassan, Musa A.; Pesavento, Patricia; Mete, Asli; Saeij, Jeroen.

In: mBio, Vol. 10, No. 1, 08.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, Yifan ; Cirelli, Kimberly M. ; Barros, Patricio D.C. ; Sangaré, Lamba Omar ; Butty, Vincent ; Hassan, Musa A. ; Pesavento, Patricia ; Mete, Asli ; Saeij, Jeroen. / Three Toxoplasma gondii Dense Granule Proteins Are Required for Induction of Lewis Rat Macrophage Pyroptosis. In: mBio. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 1.
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abstract = "Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, Toxoplasma rapidly induces programmed cell death (pyroptosis), which prevents Toxoplasma replication, possibly explaining the resistance of the Lewis rat to Toxoplasma Using a chemical mutagenesis screen, we identified Toxoplasma mutants that no longer induced pyroptosis. Whole-genome sequencing led to the identification of three Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole-localized dense granule proteins, GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43, that are individually required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. Macrophage infection with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites led to greatly reduced cell death rates and enhanced parasite replication. Lewis rat macrophages infected with parasites containing a single, double, or triple deletion of these GRAs showed similar levels of cell viability, suggesting that the three GRAs function in the same pathway. Deletion of GRA42 or GRA43 resulted in GRA35 (and other GRAs) being retained inside the parasitophorous vacuole instead of being localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Despite having greatly enhanced replication in Lewis rat macrophages in vitro, Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites did not establish a chronic infection in Lewis rats. Toxoplasma did not induce F344 rat macrophage pyroptosis, but F344 rats infected with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites had reduced cyst numbers. Thus, these GRAs determined parasite in vivo fitness in F344 rats. Overall, our data suggest that these three Toxoplasma dense granule proteins play a critical role in establishing a chronic infection in vivo, independently of their role in mediating macrophage pyroptosis, likely due to their importance in regulating protein localization to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane.IMPORTANCE Inflammasomes are major components of the innate immune system and are responsible for detecting various microbial and environmental danger signals. Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, the parasite rapidly activates the NLRP1 inflammasome, resulting in pyroptosis and elimination of the parasite's replication niche. The work reported here revealed that Toxoplasma GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43 are required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. GRA42 and GRA43 mediate the correct localization of other GRAs, including GRA35, to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. These three GRAs were also found to be important for parasite in vivo fitness in a Toxoplasma-susceptible rat strain, independently of their role in NLRP1 inflammasome activation, suggesting that they perform other important functions. Thus, this study identified three GRAs that mediate the induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis and are required for pathogenesis of the parasite.",
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AU - Cirelli, Kimberly M.

AU - Barros, Patricio D.C.

AU - Sangaré, Lamba Omar

AU - Butty, Vincent

AU - Hassan, Musa A.

AU - Pesavento, Patricia

AU - Mete, Asli

AU - Saeij, Jeroen

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N2 - Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, Toxoplasma rapidly induces programmed cell death (pyroptosis), which prevents Toxoplasma replication, possibly explaining the resistance of the Lewis rat to Toxoplasma Using a chemical mutagenesis screen, we identified Toxoplasma mutants that no longer induced pyroptosis. Whole-genome sequencing led to the identification of three Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole-localized dense granule proteins, GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43, that are individually required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. Macrophage infection with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites led to greatly reduced cell death rates and enhanced parasite replication. Lewis rat macrophages infected with parasites containing a single, double, or triple deletion of these GRAs showed similar levels of cell viability, suggesting that the three GRAs function in the same pathway. Deletion of GRA42 or GRA43 resulted in GRA35 (and other GRAs) being retained inside the parasitophorous vacuole instead of being localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Despite having greatly enhanced replication in Lewis rat macrophages in vitro, Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites did not establish a chronic infection in Lewis rats. Toxoplasma did not induce F344 rat macrophage pyroptosis, but F344 rats infected with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites had reduced cyst numbers. Thus, these GRAs determined parasite in vivo fitness in F344 rats. Overall, our data suggest that these three Toxoplasma dense granule proteins play a critical role in establishing a chronic infection in vivo, independently of their role in mediating macrophage pyroptosis, likely due to their importance in regulating protein localization to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane.IMPORTANCE Inflammasomes are major components of the innate immune system and are responsible for detecting various microbial and environmental danger signals. Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, the parasite rapidly activates the NLRP1 inflammasome, resulting in pyroptosis and elimination of the parasite's replication niche. The work reported here revealed that Toxoplasma GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43 are required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. GRA42 and GRA43 mediate the correct localization of other GRAs, including GRA35, to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. These three GRAs were also found to be important for parasite in vivo fitness in a Toxoplasma-susceptible rat strain, independently of their role in NLRP1 inflammasome activation, suggesting that they perform other important functions. Thus, this study identified three GRAs that mediate the induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis and are required for pathogenesis of the parasite.

AB - Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, Toxoplasma rapidly induces programmed cell death (pyroptosis), which prevents Toxoplasma replication, possibly explaining the resistance of the Lewis rat to Toxoplasma Using a chemical mutagenesis screen, we identified Toxoplasma mutants that no longer induced pyroptosis. Whole-genome sequencing led to the identification of three Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole-localized dense granule proteins, GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43, that are individually required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. Macrophage infection with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites led to greatly reduced cell death rates and enhanced parasite replication. Lewis rat macrophages infected with parasites containing a single, double, or triple deletion of these GRAs showed similar levels of cell viability, suggesting that the three GRAs function in the same pathway. Deletion of GRA42 or GRA43 resulted in GRA35 (and other GRAs) being retained inside the parasitophorous vacuole instead of being localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Despite having greatly enhanced replication in Lewis rat macrophages in vitro, Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites did not establish a chronic infection in Lewis rats. Toxoplasma did not induce F344 rat macrophage pyroptosis, but F344 rats infected with Δgra35, Δgra42, and Δgra43 parasites had reduced cyst numbers. Thus, these GRAs determined parasite in vivo fitness in F344 rats. Overall, our data suggest that these three Toxoplasma dense granule proteins play a critical role in establishing a chronic infection in vivo, independently of their role in mediating macrophage pyroptosis, likely due to their importance in regulating protein localization to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane.IMPORTANCE Inflammasomes are major components of the innate immune system and are responsible for detecting various microbial and environmental danger signals. Upon invasion of Lewis rat macrophages, the parasite rapidly activates the NLRP1 inflammasome, resulting in pyroptosis and elimination of the parasite's replication niche. The work reported here revealed that Toxoplasma GRA35, GRA42, and GRA43 are required for induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis. GRA42 and GRA43 mediate the correct localization of other GRAs, including GRA35, to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. These three GRAs were also found to be important for parasite in vivo fitness in a Toxoplasma-susceptible rat strain, independently of their role in NLRP1 inflammasome activation, suggesting that they perform other important functions. Thus, this study identified three GRAs that mediate the induction of Lewis rat macrophage pyroptosis and are required for pathogenesis of the parasite.

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KW - pyroptosis

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