Three-dimensional panoramic imaging of cardiac arrhythmias in rabbit heart

Fujian Qu, Crystal M Ripplinger, Vladimir P. Nikolski, Cindy Grimm, Igor R. Efimov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Cardiac fluorescent optical imaging provides the unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of propagating electrical waves during ventricular arrhythmias and the termination of arrhythmias by strong electric shocks. Panoramic imaging systems using charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras as the photodetector have been developed to overcome the inability to monitor electrical activity from the entire cardiac surface. Photodiode arrays (PDAs) are known to have higher temporal resolution and signal quality, but lower spatial resolution compared to CCD cameras. We construct a panoramic imaging system with three PDAs and image Langendorff perfused rabbit hearts (n=18) during normal sinus rhythm, epicardial pacing, and arrhythmias. The recorded spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity is texture mapped onto a reconstructed 3-D geometrical heart model specific to each heart studied. The PDA-based system provides sufficient spatial resolution (1.72 mm without interpolation ) for the study of wavefront propagation in the rabbit heart. The reconstructed 3-D electrical activity provides us with a powerful tool to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of arrhythmia maintenance and termination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044019
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Arrhythmia
  • Defibrillation
  • Electrophysiology
  • Optical mapping
  • Panoramic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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