Three-Dimensional Nanoprinting via Scanning Probe Lithography-Delivered Layer-by-Layer Deposition

Jianli Zhao, Logan A. Swartz, Wei Feng Lin, Philip S. Schlenoff, Jane Frommer, Joseph B. Schlenoff, Gang-yu Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been a very active area of research and development due to its capability to produce 3D objects by design. Miniaturization and improvement of spatial resolution are major challenges in current 3D printing technology development. This work reports advances in miniaturizing 3D printing to the nanometer scale using scanning probe microscopy in conjunction with local material delivery. Using polyelectrolyte polymers and complexes, we have demonstrated the concept of layer-by-layer nanoprinting by design. Nanometer precision is achieved in all three dimensions, as well as in interlayer registry. The approach enables production of designed functional 3D materials with nanometer resolution and, as such, creates a platform for conducting scientific research in designed 3D nanoenvironments as well. In doing so, it enables production of nanomaterials and scaffolds for photonics devices, biomedicine, and tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5656-5662
Number of pages7
JournalACS Nano
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 28 2016


  • atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • layer-by-layer
  • nanostructure
  • polyelectrolyte
  • scanning probe lithography (SPL)
  • scanning probe microscopy (SPM)
  • three-dimensional (3D) printing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-Dimensional Nanoprinting via Scanning Probe Lithography-Delivered Layer-by-Layer Deposition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this