Three-dimensional echo-planar MR spectroscopic imaging at short echo times in the human brain

Stefan Posse, Charles DeCarli, Denis Le Bihan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

160 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of three-dimensional echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) at short echo time (13 msec) with a conventional clinical imager in the human brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Periodic inversions of a readout gradient were used during data acquisition to simultaneously encode chemical shift and one spatial dimension in one excitation. Aliasing artifacts were avoided with a modified acquisition-and- processing method based on oversampling. A double outer-volume suppression technique that adapts to the ovoid brain shape was used to strongly reduce extracranial lipid resonances. RESULTS: Three-dimensional spatial encoding in vivo of eight sections with 32 x 32 voxels each (0.75 cm3) was performed in 34 minutes with four signal averages. The spectral resolution and signal-to- noise ratio (S/N) of resonances of inositol, choline, creatine, glutamate and glutamine, and N-acetyl aspartate were consistent with those previously recorded with conventional phase encoding. CONCLUSION: EPSI substantially reduces acquisition time for three-dimensional spatial encoding and yields a spectral quality similar to that obtained with conventional techniques without affecting the S/N per unit time and unit volume.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)733-738
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain, MR
  • Magnetic resonance (MR), pulse sequences
  • Magnetic resonance (MR), rapid imaging
  • Magnetic resonance (MR), spectroscopy
  • Magnetic resonance (MR), three-dimensional

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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