The use of ultrasonography for the study of the bovine reproductive tract. II. Non-pregnant, pregnant and pathological conditions of the uterus

R. A. Fissore, A. J. Edmondson, R. L. Pashen, Robert Bondurant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Real time B mode ultrasonography, with a 5 MHz transducer and a linear array scanner, was used to examine the bovine uterus. Approximately 450 dairy cows were examined either on farms or immediately prior to slaughter. Normal and pathological changes of the uterus were noted and a comparison made between ultrasound characteristics, rectal findings and gross examination at slaughter. The normal uterus in estrus, diestrus and pregnancy was found to exhibit characteristic images. These included a distinct folding of the endometrium at the time of estrus; a lack of folding and increased echogenicity at mid-diestrus; slight distension with non-echoic fluid as early as 22 days of gestation; and definitive recognition of the conceptus by day 27 of gestation. In addition, observations were made of the pathological conditions of endometritis, pyometra, mucometra, mummified and macerated fetuses. Generally, images of inflammatory conditions of the uterus were characterized by a distended lumen filled to a varying degree with partially echogenic, 'snowy' patches. In conditions involving fetal remnants, the images allowed visualization of the fragments. This study demonstrated that ultrasonography was useful in examining the normal uterus, being particularly helpful in differentiating questionable palpation results when uterine pathology was present.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-177
Number of pages11
JournalAnimal Reproduction Science
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1986

Fingerprint

ultrasonography
uterus
Uterus
Ultrasonography
cattle
Diestrus
diestrus
Estrus
pregnancy
Pregnancy
estrus
slaughter
Pyometra
Endometritis
pyometra
conceptus
Palpation
transducers (equipment)
endometrium
endometritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

The use of ultrasonography for the study of the bovine reproductive tract. II. Non-pregnant, pregnant and pathological conditions of the uterus. / Fissore, R. A.; Edmondson, A. J.; Pashen, R. L.; Bondurant, Robert.

In: Animal Reproduction Science, Vol. 12, No. 3, 01.01.1986, p. 167-177.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{d2947cac02514cd3896309fd7f4f75b6,
title = "The use of ultrasonography for the study of the bovine reproductive tract. II. Non-pregnant, pregnant and pathological conditions of the uterus",
abstract = "Real time B mode ultrasonography, with a 5 MHz transducer and a linear array scanner, was used to examine the bovine uterus. Approximately 450 dairy cows were examined either on farms or immediately prior to slaughter. Normal and pathological changes of the uterus were noted and a comparison made between ultrasound characteristics, rectal findings and gross examination at slaughter. The normal uterus in estrus, diestrus and pregnancy was found to exhibit characteristic images. These included a distinct folding of the endometrium at the time of estrus; a lack of folding and increased echogenicity at mid-diestrus; slight distension with non-echoic fluid as early as 22 days of gestation; and definitive recognition of the conceptus by day 27 of gestation. In addition, observations were made of the pathological conditions of endometritis, pyometra, mucometra, mummified and macerated fetuses. Generally, images of inflammatory conditions of the uterus were characterized by a distended lumen filled to a varying degree with partially echogenic, 'snowy' patches. In conditions involving fetal remnants, the images allowed visualization of the fragments. This study demonstrated that ultrasonography was useful in examining the normal uterus, being particularly helpful in differentiating questionable palpation results when uterine pathology was present.",
author = "Fissore, {R. A.} and Edmondson, {A. J.} and Pashen, {R. L.} and Robert Bondurant",
year = "1986",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/0378-4320(86)90037-0",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "167--177",
journal = "Animal Reproduction Science",
issn = "0378-4320",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The use of ultrasonography for the study of the bovine reproductive tract. II. Non-pregnant, pregnant and pathological conditions of the uterus

AU - Fissore, R. A.

AU - Edmondson, A. J.

AU - Pashen, R. L.

AU - Bondurant, Robert

PY - 1986/1/1

Y1 - 1986/1/1

N2 - Real time B mode ultrasonography, with a 5 MHz transducer and a linear array scanner, was used to examine the bovine uterus. Approximately 450 dairy cows were examined either on farms or immediately prior to slaughter. Normal and pathological changes of the uterus were noted and a comparison made between ultrasound characteristics, rectal findings and gross examination at slaughter. The normal uterus in estrus, diestrus and pregnancy was found to exhibit characteristic images. These included a distinct folding of the endometrium at the time of estrus; a lack of folding and increased echogenicity at mid-diestrus; slight distension with non-echoic fluid as early as 22 days of gestation; and definitive recognition of the conceptus by day 27 of gestation. In addition, observations were made of the pathological conditions of endometritis, pyometra, mucometra, mummified and macerated fetuses. Generally, images of inflammatory conditions of the uterus were characterized by a distended lumen filled to a varying degree with partially echogenic, 'snowy' patches. In conditions involving fetal remnants, the images allowed visualization of the fragments. This study demonstrated that ultrasonography was useful in examining the normal uterus, being particularly helpful in differentiating questionable palpation results when uterine pathology was present.

AB - Real time B mode ultrasonography, with a 5 MHz transducer and a linear array scanner, was used to examine the bovine uterus. Approximately 450 dairy cows were examined either on farms or immediately prior to slaughter. Normal and pathological changes of the uterus were noted and a comparison made between ultrasound characteristics, rectal findings and gross examination at slaughter. The normal uterus in estrus, diestrus and pregnancy was found to exhibit characteristic images. These included a distinct folding of the endometrium at the time of estrus; a lack of folding and increased echogenicity at mid-diestrus; slight distension with non-echoic fluid as early as 22 days of gestation; and definitive recognition of the conceptus by day 27 of gestation. In addition, observations were made of the pathological conditions of endometritis, pyometra, mucometra, mummified and macerated fetuses. Generally, images of inflammatory conditions of the uterus were characterized by a distended lumen filled to a varying degree with partially echogenic, 'snowy' patches. In conditions involving fetal remnants, the images allowed visualization of the fragments. This study demonstrated that ultrasonography was useful in examining the normal uterus, being particularly helpful in differentiating questionable palpation results when uterine pathology was present.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=38249039938&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=38249039938&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0378-4320(86)90037-0

DO - 10.1016/0378-4320(86)90037-0

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:38249039938

VL - 12

SP - 167

EP - 177

JO - Animal Reproduction Science

JF - Animal Reproduction Science

SN - 0378-4320

IS - 3

ER -