The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum

Kevin E. Washburn, Robert N. Streeter, Jeremiah T. Saliki, Terry W Lehenbauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phennothiazine dye of required to inactive bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. The experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same invesitgators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue(MB) or methylene. violet(MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illuminatin was performed in small, portable chest-type freezer equipped on the in side with white flourescents lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were detemined for time 0 and 60 min. One μM MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 μM MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-111
Number of pages7
JournalCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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