The US etonogestrel implant mandatory clinical training and active monitoring programs: 6-year experience

Mitchell D Creinin, Andrew M. Kaunitz, Philip D. Darney, Lisa Schwartz, Tonja Hampton, Keith Gordon, Hans Rekers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Objective: The objective was to monitor the effectiveness of the etonogestrel implant clinical training program through a voluntary active monitoring program (AMP). Study design: US health care providers underwent mandatory training by the manufacturer on etonogestrel implant insertion, localization and removal. After training, health care providers could enroll in a voluntary AMP to provide outcome data to meet a postmarketing commitment of the manufacturer with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Those who volunteered completed and faxed forms to the manufacturer after implant insertion and removal detailing the procedure and device-related outcomes, including insertion-, localization- or removal-associated events. Experts reviewed outcome data quarterly, which the Sponsor then reported to the FDA. Results: Among 42,337 health care providers completing the training program, 4294 (10.1%) volunteered to participate in the AMP. The 26,198 forms submitted over 6.4 years included more insertion (n=20,497) forms than removal forms (n=5701). The volunteers reported 646 events on 566 (2.2%) forms related to insertion (n=197), localization (n=34), removal (n=357) and "other" (n=58). Clinically important events included noninsertion (n=4), serum etonogestrel positive but implant not found (n=1), and possible nerve (n=66) or vascular (n=5) injury. The reports did not include any insertion-, localization- or removal-associated hospitalizations. Eight (0.14%) removal reports described referral for surgical implant removal. Conclusion: Events related to insertion, localization or removal of the etonogestrel implant are uncommon among US providers who received mandatory training in the use of the implant. Implications: This report presents results from the first mandatory US contraceptive training program. Health care providers volunteered to report information about etonogestrel implant insertion, localization and removal. Although the data do not demonstrate whether a mandatory program improves outcomes, they elucidate the utility and real-life experience that clinical training programs can provide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - Feb 24 2016


  • Contraceptive implant
  • Etonogestrel
  • Monitoring
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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