The Unilateral Below Elbow Test: A function test for children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency

Anita M. Bagley, Fred Molitor, Lisa V. Wagner, Wendy Tomhave, Michelle James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The Unilateral Below Elbow Test (UBET) was developed to evaluate function in bimanual activities for both the prosthesis wearer and non-wearer. Nine tasks were chosen for each of four age-specific categories defined by development stages of hand function (2-4y, 5-7y, 8-10y, and 11-21y). Two scales, Completion of Task and Method of Use, were designed to rate performance. To measure reliability, four occupational therapists scored samples of videotaped UBET performances. For Completion of Task, an interval scale, agreement in scoring was measured with interclass correlation coefficients (ICC; n=9; five females, four males). For Method of Use, a nominal scale, chance-adjusted association was calculated with Cohen's kappa coefficients (interobserver n=198; 111 females, 87 males; intraobserver n=93; 56 females, 37 males). For Completion of Task, the average ICC was 0.87 for the prosthesis-on condition, and 0.85 for the prosthesis-off condition. ICCs exceeded 0.80 for eight out of nine tasks for the two older age groups, but for only five out of nine tasks in the younger age groups. Higher inter- and intraobserver kappa coefficients for Method of Use resulted when scoring children with their prostheses on versus off. The oldest age group had lower kappa values than the other three groups. The UBET is recommended for the functional evaluation of Completion of Task in children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency with and without their prostheses. Method of Use scoring can evaluate individuals for directed therapy interventions or prosthetic training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)569-575
Number of pages7
JournalDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neuroscience(all)


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