BACKGROUND: Factor VIIc, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and are modulated, in part, by fat type and amount. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated fat type and amount on the primary outcomes: factor VIIc, fibrinogen, and PAI-1. METHODS: In the Dietary Effects on Lipoproteins and Thrombogenic Activity (DELTA) Trial, 2 controlled crossover feeding studies evaluated substituting carbohydrate or MUFAs for SFAs. Study 1: healthy participants (n = 103) were provided with (8 wk) an average American diet [AAD; designed to provide 37% of energy (%E) as fat, 16% SFA], a Step 1 diet (30%E fat, 9% SFA), and a diet low in SFA (Low-Sat; 26%E fat, 5% SFA). Study 2: participants (n = 85) at risk for CVD and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) were provided with (7 wk) an AAD, a step 1 diet, and a high-MUFA diet (designed to provide 37%E fat, 8% SFA, 22% MUFA). RESULTS: Study 1: compared with AAD, the Step 1 and Low-Sat diets decreased mean factor VIIc by 1.8% and 2.6% (overall P = 0.0001), increased mean fibrinogen by 1.2% and 2.8% (P = 0.0141), and increased mean square root PAI-1 by 0.0% and 6.0% (P = 0.0037), respectively. Study 2: compared with AAD, the Step 1 and high-MUFA diets decreased mean factor VIIc by 4.1% and 3.2% (overall P < 0.0001), increased mean fibrinogen by 3.9% and 1.5% (P = 0.0083), and increased mean square-root PAI-1 by 2.0% and 5.8% (P = 0.1319), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Replacing SFA with carbohydrate decreased factor VIIc and increased fibrinogen in healthy and metabolically unhealthy individuals and also increased PAI-1 in healthy subjects. Replacing SFA with MUFA decreased factor VIIc and increased fibrinogen but less than carbohydrate. Our results indicate an uncertain effect of replacing SFA with carbohydrate or MUFA on cardiometabolic risk because of small changes in hemostatic factors and directionally different responses to decreasing SFA. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000538?term=NCT00000538&rank=1 as NCT00000538.
- DELTA (Dietary Effects on Lipoproteins and Thrombogenic Activity)
- dietary fat
- factor VIIc
- plasminogen activator inhibitor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics