The T1 pelvic angle, a novel radiographic measure of global sagittal deformity, accounts for both spinal inclination and pelvic tilt and correlates with health-related quality of life

the International Spine Study Group

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Background: Adult spinal deformity is a prevalent cause of pain and disability. Established measures of sagittal spinopelvic alignment such as sagittal vertical axis and pelvic tilt can be modified by postural compensation, including pelvic retroversion, knee flexion, and the use of assistive devices for standing. We introduce the T1 pelvic angle, a novel measure of sagittal alignment that simultaneously accounts for both spinal inclination and pelvic retroversion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the T1 pelvic angle and other established sagittal alignment measures and to correlate these parameters with health-related quality-of-life measures.

Methods: This is a multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional analysis of consecutive patients with adult spinal deformity. Inclusion criteria were adult spinal deformity, an age of greater than eighteen years, and any of the following: scoliosis, a Cobb angle of ‡20°, sagittal vertical axis of ‡5 cm, thoracic kyphosis of ‡60°, and pelvic tilt of ‡25°. Clinical measures of disability included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires.

Results: Five hundred and fifty-nine consecutive patients with adult spinal deformity (mean age, 52.5 years) were enrolled. The T1 pelvic angle correlated with the sagittal vertical axis (r = 0.837), pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (r = 0.889), and pelvic tilt (0.933). Categorizing the patients by increasing T1 pelvic angle (<10°, 10° to 20°, 21° to 30°, and >30°) revealed a significant and progressive worsening in health-related quality of life (p < 0.001 for all). The T1 pelvic angle and sagittal vertical axis correlated with the ODI (0.435 and 0.455), SF-36 Physical Component Summary (-0.445 and -0.458), and SRS (-0.358 and -0.383) (p < 0.001 for all). Utilizing a linear regression analysis, a T1 pelvic angle of 20° corresponded to a severe disability (an ODI of >40), and the meaningful change in T1 pelvic angle corresponding to one minimal clinically important difference was 4.1° on the ODI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1631-1640
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

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