The Self-Regulation of Automatic Associations and Behavioral Impulses

Jeffrey Sherman, Bertram Gawronski, Karen Gonsalkorale, Kurt Hugenberg, Thomas J. Allen, Carla J. Groom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

187 Scopus citations


The distinction between automatic processes and controlled processes is a central organizational theme across areas of psychology. However, this dichotomy conceals important differences among qualitatively different processes that independently contribute to ongoing behavior. The Quadruple process model is a multinomial model that provides quantitative estimates of 4 distinct processes in a single task: the likelihood that an automatic response tendency is activated; the likelihood that a contextually appropriate response can be determined; the likelihood that automatic response tendencies are overcome when necessary; and the likelihood that in the absence of other information, behavior is driven by a general response bias. The model integrates dual-process models from many domains of inquiry and offers a generalized, more nuanced framework of impulse regulation across these domains. The model offers insights into many central questions surrounding the operation and the interaction of automatic and controlled processes. Applications of the model to empirical and theoretical concerns in a variety of areas of psychology are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)314-335
Number of pages22
JournalPsychological Review
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2008


  • automaticity
  • cognitive control
  • dual-process models
  • impulsive behavior
  • self-regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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