Finding the right partner is a central problem in homologous recombination. Common to all models for general recombination is a homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange step. In prokaryotes this process has mainly been studied with the RecA protein of Escherichia coli. Two approaches have been used to find homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange proteins in eukaryotes. A biochemical approach has resulted in numerous proteins from various organisms. Almost all of these proteins are biochemically fundamentally different from RecA. The in vivo role of these proteins is largely not understood. A molecular-genetical approach has identified structural homologs to the E. coli RecA protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and subsequently in other organisms including other fungi, mammals, birds, and plants. The biochemistry of the eukaryotic RecA homologs is largely unsolved. For the fungal RecA homologs (S. cerevisiae RAD51, RAD55, RAD57, DMC1; Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad51; Neurospora crassa mei3) a role in homologous recombination and recombinational repair is evident. Besides recombination, homologous pairing proteins might be involved in other cellular processes like chromosome pairing or gene inactivation.
- Homologous pairing
- hybrid DNA
- strand exchange
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)