Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to gram-positive pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a major cause of morbid conditions and death. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with potent in vitro activity against a range of gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and Streptococcus species. In 2 phase 3 clinical trials, telavancin was noninferior to vancomycin in patients with HAP due to gram-positive pathogens. Clinically evaluable patients with S. aureus as the sole pathogen or S. aureus with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration >1 μg/mL, however, had higher cure rates with telavancin than with vancomycin. In patients with bacteremic HAP, telavancin resulted in clearance of blood cultures. It was associated with increased serum creatinine levels and higher mortality rates in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment at baseline; however, on subsequent analysis, the outcomes seemed to have been at least partially affected by the adequacy of empiric gram-negative antimicrobial therapy. Thus, clinicians need to consider the risk-benefit balance when choosing telavancin in patients with severe renal impairment at baseline. Overall, these data support the use of telavancin in the treatment of HAP due to S. aureus, including MRSA and strains with elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations, but clinicians should always weigh the risks and benefits of various treatment options.
- hospital-acquired pneumonia
- ventilator-associated pneumonia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Microbiology (medical)