This study was designed to examine the role of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in environmental air pollutant-induced pulmonary inflammation, injury, and repair. IL-6 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to filtered air; aged and diluted cigarette smoke (ADSS), a surrogate for environmental tobacco smoke; ozone; or ADSS followed by ozone (ADSS/ozone). The proportion of monocytes and neutrophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as the level of total protein in BAL fluid were significantly increased in both IL-6 KO and WT mice following exposure to ozone or to ADSS/ozone. However, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling within terminal bronchiolar epithelium and proximal alveolar regions in IL-6 KO mice exposed to ozone or to ADSS/ozone was significantly reduced compared with IL-6 sufficient mice (WT). WT mice treated with IL-6 antibodies also demonstrated a reduction in BrdU cell labeling similar to that observed in IL-6 KO mice following exposure to ozone or ADSS/ozone. Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) abundance, a marker of Clara cell maturation and function, was markedly reduced in the terminal bronchiolar epithelium of WT mice following exposure to ADSS and/or ozone, whereas CCSP abundance was unchanged in IL-6 KO mice. We conclude that endogenous IL-6 in mice plays a critical role in the progress of lung inflammation/injury, but CCSP may also play a role to protect the lungs of mice exposed to toxic air pollutants. Data from this study further suggest that IL-6 antibody treatment modalities may be a means to attenuate pulmonary inflammation and injury.
- Lung inflammation and injury
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