The role of improved water quality on inflammatory markers in patients undergoing regular dialysis

M. A. Rahmati, P. Homel, Nicholas A. Hoenich, R. Levin, George Kaysen, N. W. Levin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Hemodialysis utilizes large quantities of water for the preparation of dialysis fluid. Such water meets national standards and international standards but a considerable disparity exists between such standards with respect to microbiological purity. This study collated and retrospectively analyzed the impact of upgrading water systems from that specified in the US standards to those specified in European standards on clinical measures associated with inflammation in four metropolitan dialysis units for two periods. Two periods were compared, three months prior to and six months post upgrading the water treatment systems. The monthly total erythropoietin dosage and intravenous iron supplementation for each patient were also compared over these periods. Variables with significant pre-post differences were assessed using multivariate models to control for confounding factors. The results indicated significant increases in hemoglobin, ferritin and TSat (all p < 0.0001) and albumin (p = 0.0001) were associated with improvement in water quality. Decreases in CRP and creatinine (both p < 0.0001) were also noted. These findings suggest that the current regulations in the United States set the microbiological limits of water and dialysis fluid inappropriately high, and the limits should be revised downwards, since such an approach is reflected in improvement in markers of inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)723-727
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Artificial Organs
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • C-reactive protein
  • Dialysis fluid
  • Endotoxin
  • Erythropoietin
  • Hemodialysis
  • Iron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics


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