The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding Task in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

Amber Sousa, Jesus J. Gomar, John D Ragland, Concepcion Conejero-Goldberg, Justin Buthorn, Lynda Keehlisen, Ted E. Huey, Jeremy Koppel, Marc L. Gordon, Erica Christen, Terry E. Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: The Relational and Item-Specific Encoding task (RISE) measures episodic memory subcomponents, including item-specific and relational encoding of to-be-remembered stimuli. These memory components are neurobiologically relevant because they may engage distinct subregions of the medial temporal lobe, perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, parahippocampus, and hippocampus. Methods: A total of 125 participants, including 84 healthy controls (HC), 22 mild cognitive impairment-diagnosed and 19 Alzheimer disease (AD)-diagnosed participants, were administered the RISE and neuropsychological measures. Stepwise linear regressions assessed prediction of functional ability from RISE d′ measures. ANOVAs and logistic regressions determined the ability of the RISE to discriminate between the diagnostic groups. In addition, the psychometric properties of the RISE were examined. Results: RISE measures predicted diagnosis with pseudo R2 values in the range of 0.25-0.30. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated adequate sensitivity and specificity with areas under the curve in the range of 0.78-0.98. Memory following relational encoding was a significant predictor of everyday functional competence. The RISE had acceptable psychometric properties, with the exception of floor effects in the AD group. Conclusion: The RISE measures significantly predicted diagnosis and predicted everyday functional competence. The RISE offers unique advantages in the assessment of HC and individuals with preclinical AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-277
Number of pages13
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Alzheimer disease
  • Memory
  • Neuropsychological tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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