Geophysical properties of acoustic, seismic, electric, and magnetic waveforms create opportunities and constraints for animals' communication and sensory monitoring of the environment. The geometric spreading of waves differs; at some frequencies, transmission is most efficient and has minimal noise. The spreading properties of seismic waves favor long-distance propagation for communication and environmental monitoring, and would benefit elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana), such as in locating subsurface water. Extending C. E. O'Connell-Rodwell, B. T. Arnason, and L. A. Hart (2000), a man jumping at 1.11 km propagated seismic waves at 10-40 Hz. Given the noise of lightning and the Schumann resonances, near field magnetic and electric transmission by animals would be most efficient around 1000 Hz.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Psychology (miscellaneous)