The pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular dose of amikacin in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis)

R. Brooks Bloomfield, Dale Brooks, Philip R Vulliet

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5 Scopus citations


The pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin were determined in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) following the i.m. administration of a single 20 mg/kg dose. After a rapid absorption phase, mean amikacin serum concentrations peaked at 65 ± 12 μg/ml 30-45 min following injection. The serum amikacin concentrations decreased to 2.3 ± 2 μg/ml at 12 hr postinjection. Amikacin was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 2.02 ± 0.63 hr. The volume of distribution was estimated to be 0.28 ± 0.03 L/kg. Forty-two isolates of gram-negative bacteria and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species were cultured from birds of prey presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California-Davis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of amikacin ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/ml (x̄ = 2.5 μg/ml). The 20 mg/kg dose used in this study resulted in serum concentrations at or above the MICs for >12 hr for most of the isolates examined. The heaviest birds had the lowest peak serum amikacin concentrations, and the lightest birds had the highest, despite exact volume replacement for each sample drawn. This observation suggests that doses should be based on factors other than weight alone. Amikacin administered at 15-20 mg/kg/day, either as a single dose or divided into two or three doses, is effective in treating sensitive pathogens of the red-tailed hawk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-61
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1997


  • Amikacin
  • Buteo jamaicensis
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Red-tailed hawk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • veterinary(all)


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