The Parkland grading scale for cholecystitis

Tarik D. Madni, David Leshikar, Christian T. Minshall, Paul A. Nakonezny, Canon C. Cornelius, Jonathan B. Imran, Audra T. Clark, Brian H. Williams, Alexander L. Eastman, Joseph P. Minei, Herb A. Phelan, Michael W. Cripps

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Background: Gallbladders (GBs) with severe inflammation have longer operative times and an increased risk for complications. We propose a grading system using intraoperative images to better stratify GB inflammation. Methods: After reviewing the intraoperative images of GBs obtained during several hundred laparoscopic cholecystectomies, we developed a five-tiered grading system based on anatomy and inflammatory changes. Fifty intraoperative photographs were taken prior to dissection and then distributed to 11 surgeons who rated each GB's severity per the grading system. The two-way random effects Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability among the raters. Results: The ICC among the raters of GB severity was 0.804 (95% CI: 0.733 to 0.867; p = 0.0001). Nineteen GB images had greater than 82% agreement and 16 were clustered around GBs with severe inflammation (grades 3–5). Conclusion: This study proposes a simple, reliable grading system that characterizes GB complexity based on inflammation and anatomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-630
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018


  • Gallbladder
  • Grading scale
  • Inflammation
  • Outcomes
  • Reimbursement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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