Context. - Inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) is the most common form of genetic abnormality of the so-called 3q21q26 syndrome. Myeloid neoplasms with 3q21q26 aberrancies include acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and blast crisis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Recent advances on myeloid neoplasms with inv(3)/t(3;3) with regard to clinicopathologic features and novel molecular or genomic findings warrant a comprehensive review on this topic. Objective. - To review the clinicopathologic features and molecular as well as genomic alterations in myeloid neoplasms with inv(3)/t(3;3). Data Sources. - The data came from published articles in English-language literature. Conclusions. - At the clinicopathologic front, recent studies on MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) have highlighted their overlapping clinicopathologic features with and similar overall survival to that of inv(3)/t(3;3)-harboring AML regardless of the percentage of myeloid blasts. On the molecular front, AML and MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) exhibit gene mutations, which affect the RAS/receptor tyrosine kinase pathway. Furthermore, functional genomic studies using genomic editing and genome engineering have shown that the reallocation of the GATA2 distal hematopoietic enhancer to the proximity of the promoter of ectopic virus integration site 1 (EVI1) without the formation of a new oncogenic fusion transcript is the molecular mechanism underlying these inv(3)/t(3;3) myeloid neoplasms. Although the AML and MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) are listed as a separate category of myeloid malignancies in the 2008 World Health Organization classification, the overlapping clinicopathologic features, similar overall survival, and identical patterns at the molecular and genomic levels between AML and MDS patients with inv(3)/t(3;3) may collectively favor a unification of AML and MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) as AML or myeloid neoplasms with inv(3)/t(3;3) regardless of the blast count.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Medical Laboratory Technology