Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating degenerative disease characterized by an immunological attack on the myelin sheath leading to demyelination and axon degeneration. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) have become attractive targets as therapies to treat neurodegenerative diseases such as MS due to their potent immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. The placenta is a unique source of MSCs (PMSCs), demonstrates “fetomaternal” tolerance during pregnancy, and serves as a novel source of MSCs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMSCs and PMSC-EVs have been shown to promote remyelination in animal models of MS, however, the molecular mechanisms by which modulation of autoimmunity and promotion of myelination occurs have not been well elucidated. The current review will address the molecular mechanisms by which PMSC-EVs can promote remyelination in MS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Biomedical Engineering