The July Phenomenon and Pediatric Trauma

Sarah C. Stokes, Kaeli J. Yamashiro, Erin G. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The July Phenomenon describes concerns that patients presenting early in the academic year experience worse outcomes. Given the standardized approach to pediatric trauma patients, we hypothesized that the July Phenomenon would not impact morbidity or mortality. Methods: A retrospective review of patients ≤16 Y presenting to a level I pediatric trauma center between March 2009 and March2019 was performed. Pediatric patients admitted during the study period were compared for differences in outcome by month of presentation. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes were complications, and length of emergency department, hospital and Intensive Care Unit stay. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate the effect of month of admission on outcomes. Results: A total of 6,135 patients were evaluated, with 605 patients presenting in July. Univariate analysis failed to demonstrate consistently increased mortality, complications, or length of emergency department, hospital or Intensive Care Unit stay in July compared to months later in the academic year. On multivariate analysis, admission in July was not an independent predictor of worse outcomes. Conclusions: In this level I pediatric trauma center, pediatric trauma patients presenting earlier in the academic year have similar outcomes to those presenting later, and there is no evidence of a July Phenomenon in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)642-650
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Pediatric Trauma
  • Pediatric Trauma Care
  • Surgical Education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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