The isolation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, transmission, and control of avian bornavirus and proventricular dilatation disease

Sharman Hoppes, Patricia L. Gray, Susan Payne, H L Shivaprasad, Ian Tizard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Scopus citations


Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a common infectious neurologic disease of birds comprising a dilatation of the proventriculus by ingested food as a result of defects in intestinal motility, which affects more than 50 species of psittacines, and is also known as Macaw wasting disease, neuropathic ganglioneuritis, or lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis. Definitive diagnosis of PDD has been problematic due to the inconsistent distribution of lesions. Since its discovery, avian bornavirus (ABV) has been successfully cultured from the brains of psittacines diagnosed with PDD, providing a source of antigen for serologic assays and nucleic acid for molecular assays. This article provides evidence that ABV is the etiologic agent of PDD. Recent findings on the transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and control of ABV infection and PDD are also reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-508
Number of pages14
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2010



  • Bornavirus
  • Encephalitis
  • Parrot
  • Proventriculus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals
  • Medicine(all)

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