Objective: Rural-urban disparities exist in cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Investigations of CVD mortality among breast and gynecologic cancer (BGC) survivors from rural/urban communities are limited. We evaluated the influence of individual and neighborhood-level factors on rural-urban disparities in CVD mortality among BGC survivors. Methods: Data were from 1,139,767 women aged ≥20 years from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program who were diagnosed with BGC from 2000 to 2016 that was merged with Area Health Resource Files for neighborhood-level factors (smoking, cancer screening, primary care provider density and socioeconomic index). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for CVD mortality were calculated and multilevel Cox models, accounting for competing events, were used to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The average age of BGC survivors was 60 years, with 10.3% of them living in rural counties. During a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 47,995 CVD deaths occured. Women with BGC had excess CVD mortality compared to general population women (SMR 6.05; CI: 6.00–6.11). This risk was highest among women aged <50 years (SMR = 27.16; CI: 25.74–28.62). In models adjusted for demographics, cancer stage and cancer therapy, women with BGC in rural communities had higher CVD deaths than those in urban communities (HR = 1.10, CI:1. 05–1.15). Additional adjustment for neighborhood-level characteristics attenuated the relation of rurality with CVD mortality (HR = 1.02, CI: 0.98–1.07). Conclusions: BGC survivors living in rural communities have elevated risk of CVD mortality. Neighborhood-level characteristics explained the rural-urban disparities in CVD mortality observed among BGC survivors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology