The impact of music on the anxiety level of patients undergoing outpatient endoscopy - A prospective randomized controlled study

R. K. Hsu, M. Veridiano, J. Inciardi, P. Soares, C. Stefani, Joseph Leung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Patient satisfaction is an important measure for the effective delivery of a medical service. Although most endoscopy procedures are done under conscious sedation, many patients remain apprehensive about GI endoscopy. This study examines whether music reduces patient anxiety and/or improves their satisfaction in outpatient endoscopy. Methods: Patients undergoing outpatient procedures and consented to the study completed a pre procedure questionnaire. They were then randomized to receive (A) music or (B) no music from a portable CD player via a headphone. The procedures included EGD, colonoscopy, ERCP and EUS. 'Soft' music was used. Post procedure they completed a second questionnaire. A visual linear analogue scale (VLAS) was used to measure the anxiety level. Results: n = 110 Music 1 Control P Pre procedure Belief music would reduce anxiety level 83% 81% ns Prefer music during the procedure 92% 89% ns Post-procedure Prefer music during the procedure 95% 89% ns Recommend music to other patients 97% 91% ns Anxiety level Reduction in anxiety level (VLAS) 55% 27% 0.015 Reduced anxiety level (subjective) 89% 40% 0.001 Agree to have repeat procedure 87% 83% ns Very satisfied with the service 88% 84% ns The level of amnesia, adequacy of sedation, amount of intravenous sedatives, types of procedures, and previous endoscopy experience were comparable in both groups. Conclusions: (1) Music significantly reduced anxiety level in patients undergoing outpatient endoscopy. (2) Music was highly recommended and preferred by most patients. (3) Under appropriate settings, provision of music has a definite positive impact in endoscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGastrointestinal Endoscopy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1998


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this