The immunobiology and clinical features of type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1)

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34 Scopus citations


Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a subtype of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome characterized by the simultaneous or sequential dysfunction of multiple endocrine or non-endocrine glands. A clinical diagnosis of APS-1 is typically based on the presence of at least two of three following criteria: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The first identified causative mutated gene for APS-1 is autoimmune regulator (AIRE) encoding a critical transcription factor, which is primarily expressed in the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) for generating central immune tolerance. A wide range of chronic, debilitating complications, with no obvious correlation with genetics, makes a diagnosis of APS-1 challenging early in the disease course. Managing APS-1 is difficult due to its complexity, especially the intricate relationships within manifestations and genetic mutations. The past decades have witnessed dramatic progress in elucidating the function of AIRE and conducting large-scale cohort studies in APS-1. However, no clear evidence-based guidelines have been established in APS-1. In this review, we provide a detailed critical overview of the study history, epidemiology, clinical features, and related mechanisms of autoimmunity in APS-1, as well as currently available therapies for this autoimmune disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017


  • AIRE
  • APS-1
  • Autoimmunity
  • Epigenetics
  • Genetics
  • Immune dysregulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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