The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria

Timothy D. Read, Scott N. Peterson, Nicolas Tourasse, Les W. Baillie, Ian T. Paulsen, Karen E. Nelson, Hervé Tettelin, Derrick E. Fouts, Jonathan A Eisen, Steven R. Gill, Erik K. Holtzapple, Ole Andreas Økstad, Erlendur Helgason, Jennifer Rilstone, Martin Wu, James F. Kolonay, Maureen J. Beanan, Robert J. Dodson, Lauren M. Brinkac, Michelle Gwinn & 32 others Robert T. DeBoy, Ramana Madpu, Sean C. Daugherty, A. Scott Durkin, Daniel H. Haft, William C. Nelson, Jeremy D. Peterson, Mihai Pop, Hoda M. Khouri, Diana Radune, Jonathan L. Benton, Yasmin Mahamoud, Lingxia Jiang, Ioana R. Hance, Janice F. Weidman, Kristi J. Berry, Roger D. Plaut, Alex M. Wolf, Kisha L. Watkins, William C. Nierman, Alyson Hazen, Robin Cline, Caroline Redmond, Joanne E. Thwaite, Owen White, Steven L. Salzberg, Brendan Thomason, Arthur M. Friedlander, Theresa M. Koehler, Philip C. Hanna, Anne Brit Kolstø, Claire M. Fraser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

596 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax. Key virulence genes are found on plasmids (extra-chromosomal, circular, double-stranded DNA molecules) pXO1 (ref. 2) and pXO2 (ref. 3). To identify additional genes that might contribute to virulence, we analysed the complete sequence of the chromosome of B. anthracis Ames (about 5.23 megabases). We found several chromosomally encoded proteins that may contribute to pathogenicity - including haemolysins, phospholipases and iron acquisition functions - and identified numerous surface proteins that might be important targets for vaccines and drugs. Almost all these putative chromosomal virulence and surface proteins have homologues in Bacillus cereus, highlighting the similarity of B. anthracis to near-neighbours that are not associated with anthrax. By performing a comparative genome hybridization of 19 B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains against a B. anthracis DNA microarray, we confirmed the general similarity of chromosomal genes among this group of close relatives. However, we found that the gene sequences of pXO1 and pXO2 were more variable between strains, suggesting plasmid mobility in the group. The complete sequence of B. anthracis is a step towards a better understanding of anthrax pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-86
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume423
Issue number6935
DOIs
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bacillus anthracis
Anthrax
Virulence
Genome
Bacteria
Bacillus cereus
Genes
Endospore-Forming Bacteria
Membrane Proteins
Plasmids
Chromosomes, Human, 4-5
Bacillus thuringiensis
Hemolysin Proteins
Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Phospholipases
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Vaccines
Iron
DNA
Pharmaceutical Preparations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Read, T. D., Peterson, S. N., Tourasse, N., Baillie, L. W., Paulsen, I. T., Nelson, K. E., ... Fraser, C. M. (2003). The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature, 423(6935), 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586

The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. / Read, Timothy D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Tourasse, Nicolas; Baillie, Les W.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nelson, Karen E.; Tettelin, Hervé; Fouts, Derrick E.; Eisen, Jonathan A; Gill, Steven R.; Holtzapple, Erik K.; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Helgason, Erlendur; Rilstone, Jennifer; Wu, Martin; Kolonay, James F.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Dodson, Robert J.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Gwinn, Michelle; DeBoy, Robert T.; Madpu, Ramana; Daugherty, Sean C.; Durkin, A. Scott; Haft, Daniel H.; Nelson, William C.; Peterson, Jeremy D.; Pop, Mihai; Khouri, Hoda M.; Radune, Diana; Benton, Jonathan L.; Mahamoud, Yasmin; Jiang, Lingxia; Hance, Ioana R.; Weidman, Janice F.; Berry, Kristi J.; Plaut, Roger D.; Wolf, Alex M.; Watkins, Kisha L.; Nierman, William C.; Hazen, Alyson; Cline, Robin; Redmond, Caroline; Thwaite, Joanne E.; White, Owen; Salzberg, Steven L.; Thomason, Brendan; Friedlander, Arthur M.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Hanna, Philip C.; Kolstø, Anne Brit; Fraser, Claire M.

In: Nature, Vol. 423, No. 6935, 2003, p. 81-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Read, TD, Peterson, SN, Tourasse, N, Baillie, LW, Paulsen, IT, Nelson, KE, Tettelin, H, Fouts, DE, Eisen, JA, Gill, SR, Holtzapple, EK, Økstad, OA, Helgason, E, Rilstone, J, Wu, M, Kolonay, JF, Beanan, MJ, Dodson, RJ, Brinkac, LM, Gwinn, M, DeBoy, RT, Madpu, R, Daugherty, SC, Durkin, AS, Haft, DH, Nelson, WC, Peterson, JD, Pop, M, Khouri, HM, Radune, D, Benton, JL, Mahamoud, Y, Jiang, L, Hance, IR, Weidman, JF, Berry, KJ, Plaut, RD, Wolf, AM, Watkins, KL, Nierman, WC, Hazen, A, Cline, R, Redmond, C, Thwaite, JE, White, O, Salzberg, SL, Thomason, B, Friedlander, AM, Koehler, TM, Hanna, PC, Kolstø, AB & Fraser, CM 2003, 'The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria', Nature, vol. 423, no. 6935, pp. 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586
Read TD, Peterson SN, Tourasse N, Baillie LW, Paulsen IT, Nelson KE et al. The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature. 2003;423(6935):81-86. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01586
Read, Timothy D. ; Peterson, Scott N. ; Tourasse, Nicolas ; Baillie, Les W. ; Paulsen, Ian T. ; Nelson, Karen E. ; Tettelin, Hervé ; Fouts, Derrick E. ; Eisen, Jonathan A ; Gill, Steven R. ; Holtzapple, Erik K. ; Økstad, Ole Andreas ; Helgason, Erlendur ; Rilstone, Jennifer ; Wu, Martin ; Kolonay, James F. ; Beanan, Maureen J. ; Dodson, Robert J. ; Brinkac, Lauren M. ; Gwinn, Michelle ; DeBoy, Robert T. ; Madpu, Ramana ; Daugherty, Sean C. ; Durkin, A. Scott ; Haft, Daniel H. ; Nelson, William C. ; Peterson, Jeremy D. ; Pop, Mihai ; Khouri, Hoda M. ; Radune, Diana ; Benton, Jonathan L. ; Mahamoud, Yasmin ; Jiang, Lingxia ; Hance, Ioana R. ; Weidman, Janice F. ; Berry, Kristi J. ; Plaut, Roger D. ; Wolf, Alex M. ; Watkins, Kisha L. ; Nierman, William C. ; Hazen, Alyson ; Cline, Robin ; Redmond, Caroline ; Thwaite, Joanne E. ; White, Owen ; Salzberg, Steven L. ; Thomason, Brendan ; Friedlander, Arthur M. ; Koehler, Theresa M. ; Hanna, Philip C. ; Kolstø, Anne Brit ; Fraser, Claire M. / The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. In: Nature. 2003 ; Vol. 423, No. 6935. pp. 81-86.
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AU - Peterson, Scott N.

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AU - Nelson, Karen E.

AU - Tettelin, Hervé

AU - Fouts, Derrick E.

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AU - Gill, Steven R.

AU - Holtzapple, Erik K.

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AU - Radune, Diana

AU - Benton, Jonathan L.

AU - Mahamoud, Yasmin

AU - Jiang, Lingxia

AU - Hance, Ioana R.

AU - Weidman, Janice F.

AU - Berry, Kristi J.

AU - Plaut, Roger D.

AU - Wolf, Alex M.

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AU - Hazen, Alyson

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AU - Redmond, Caroline

AU - Thwaite, Joanne E.

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