The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission

R. Kaul, C. Pettengell, P. M. Sheth, Sherzana Sunderji, A. Biringer, K. MacDonald, S. Walmsley, A. Rebbapragada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

110 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another important mucosal determinant of transmission may be the number and activation status of potential HIV target cells, including CCR5/CD4+ T cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. The simultaneous presence of other genital infections, including classical sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can enhance HIV susceptibility either by breaching the epithelial barrier, recruiting HIV target cells to the genital tract, or by generating a pro-inflammatory local immune milieu. In HIV-infected individuals, genital co-infections increase HIV levels in the genital secretions, thereby increasing secondary sexual transmission. Co-infections that act as important HIV cofactors include human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and many others. Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32-40
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume77
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

HIV
Coinfection
Human Herpesvirus 2
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Immunologic Factors
Pandemics
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Anti-Infective Agents
Infection
Cytomegalovirus
Dendritic Cells
Mucous Membrane
Vaccines
Epithelium
T-Lymphocytes

Keywords

  • Genital immunology
  • HIV
  • Sexual transmission
  • Sexually transmitted infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Reproductive Medicine

Cite this

The genital tract immune milieu : an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission. / Kaul, R.; Pettengell, C.; Sheth, P. M.; Sunderji, Sherzana; Biringer, A.; MacDonald, K.; Walmsley, S.; Rebbapragada, A.

In: Journal of Reproductive Immunology, Vol. 77, No. 1, 01.01.2008, p. 32-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaul, R, Pettengell, C, Sheth, PM, Sunderji, S, Biringer, A, MacDonald, K, Walmsley, S & Rebbapragada, A 2008, 'The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission', Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2007.02.002
Kaul, R. ; Pettengell, C. ; Sheth, P. M. ; Sunderji, Sherzana ; Biringer, A. ; MacDonald, K. ; Walmsley, S. ; Rebbapragada, A. / The genital tract immune milieu : an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission. In: Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2008 ; Vol. 77, No. 1. pp. 32-40.
@article{6cbf7481a7bc4287a23d0ef09b4746ea,
title = "The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission",
abstract = "HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another important mucosal determinant of transmission may be the number and activation status of potential HIV target cells, including CCR5/CD4+ T cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. The simultaneous presence of other genital infections, including classical sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can enhance HIV susceptibility either by breaching the epithelial barrier, recruiting HIV target cells to the genital tract, or by generating a pro-inflammatory local immune milieu. In HIV-infected individuals, genital co-infections increase HIV levels in the genital secretions, thereby increasing secondary sexual transmission. Co-infections that act as important HIV cofactors include human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and many others. Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic.",
keywords = "Genital immunology, HIV, Sexual transmission, Sexually transmitted infections",
author = "R. Kaul and C. Pettengell and Sheth, {P. M.} and Sherzana Sunderji and A. Biringer and K. MacDonald and S. Walmsley and A. Rebbapragada",
year = "2008",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jri.2007.02.002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "77",
pages = "32--40",
journal = "Journal of Reproductive Immunology",
issn = "0165-0378",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The genital tract immune milieu

T2 - an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission

AU - Kaul, R.

AU - Pettengell, C.

AU - Sheth, P. M.

AU - Sunderji, Sherzana

AU - Biringer, A.

AU - MacDonald, K.

AU - Walmsley, S.

AU - Rebbapragada, A.

PY - 2008/1/1

Y1 - 2008/1/1

N2 - HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another important mucosal determinant of transmission may be the number and activation status of potential HIV target cells, including CCR5/CD4+ T cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. The simultaneous presence of other genital infections, including classical sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can enhance HIV susceptibility either by breaching the epithelial barrier, recruiting HIV target cells to the genital tract, or by generating a pro-inflammatory local immune milieu. In HIV-infected individuals, genital co-infections increase HIV levels in the genital secretions, thereby increasing secondary sexual transmission. Co-infections that act as important HIV cofactors include human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and many others. Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic.

AB - HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another important mucosal determinant of transmission may be the number and activation status of potential HIV target cells, including CCR5/CD4+ T cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. The simultaneous presence of other genital infections, including classical sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can enhance HIV susceptibility either by breaching the epithelial barrier, recruiting HIV target cells to the genital tract, or by generating a pro-inflammatory local immune milieu. In HIV-infected individuals, genital co-infections increase HIV levels in the genital secretions, thereby increasing secondary sexual transmission. Co-infections that act as important HIV cofactors include human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and many others. Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic.

KW - Genital immunology

KW - HIV

KW - Sexual transmission

KW - Sexually transmitted infections

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=38149074165&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=38149074165&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jri.2007.02.002

DO - 10.1016/j.jri.2007.02.002

M3 - Article

C2 - 17395270

AN - SCOPUS:38149074165

VL - 77

SP - 32

EP - 40

JO - Journal of Reproductive Immunology

JF - Journal of Reproductive Immunology

SN - 0165-0378

IS - 1

ER -