The flipped-classroom approach to teaching horizontal strabismus in ophthalmology residency: a pilot study

Michelle T. Cabrera, Tammy L. Yanovitch, Nandini G Gandhi, Leona Ding, Laura B. Enyedi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose: To compare the flipped classroom (home pre-taped lectures followed by in-class group exercise) to the traditional classroom (home reading assignment followed by in-class lecture) for horizontal strabismus didactics in ophthalmology residency. Methods: All PGY2-4 residents from four U.S. ophthalmology residencies without prior residency flipped-classroom experience were invited to esotropia and exotropia sessions sequentially, with random order and assignment to flipped and traditional classrooms. Content test scores before and after the two classrooms were compared. Surveys were administered to assess participant experience. Results: A total of 40 residents attended each session. Likert scale evaluation of preparatory material and classroom activity did not differ between sessions; however, divided by year of training, 70% of senior residents (PGY3-4) and 39% of first-year (PGY2) residents preferred the flipped classroom over the traditional classroom. Pre- and post-test scores for the flipped classroom exceeded those of the traditional classroom for the exotropia course (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, resp.) but not for the esotropia course. There was significant improvement between pre- and post-tests for both styles of learning. Conclusions: The flipped classroom had a favorable effect on test scores for only one of the two strabismus subjects but was preferred over the traditional classroom among PGY3-4 residents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of AAPOS
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Ophthalmology


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