Technology and refinements in urology have prospered with the bonding of engineers and surgeons. The introduction of fiberoptics and the development of the ureteroscope opened the doors to the field of ureteroscopy. Advances in rigid and flexible ureteroscopy with irrigating and working channels have expanded the capability of the urologist to diagnose and treat most abnormalities of the upper tracts in adult and pediatric populations. Instrument development has easily paralleled the growth and development of the ureteroscope and has improved success, patient safety, and comfort with the incorporation of access sheaths, nitinol materials, and Ho:YAG laser technology. Owing to their minimal morbidity and high success rate, ureteroscopic evaluation and therapeutic interventions in the upper tract represent the gold standard of management. Albert Einstein said, "There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle." Contemporary ureteroscopy is a historical miracle that has opened a vista of endless limits in upper tract endoscopy (Fig. 4, Box 1).
ASJC Scopus subject areas