The Everyday Compensation (EComp) Questionnaire: Construct Validity and Associations with Diagnosis and Longitudinal Change in Cognition and Everyday Function in Older Adults

Sarah Tomaszewski Farias, Jason Gravano, Alyssa Weakley, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Danielle Harvey, Dan Mungas, Michelle Chan, Tania Giovannetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: The Everyday Compensation scale (EComp) is an informant-rated questionnaire designed to measure cognitively based compensatory strategies that support both everyday memory and executive function in the context of completing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Although previous findings provided early support for the usefulness of the initial version of EComp, the current paper further describes the development, refinement, and validation of EComp as a new assessment tool of compensation for IADLs.Method: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine its factor structure. Convergent and predictive validity was evaluated by examining the relationship between EComp and markers of disease, including diagnosis, cognitive change, and trajectories of functional abilities.Results: CFA supported a general compensation factor after accounting for variance attributable to IADL domain-specific engagement. The clinical groups differed in compensatory strategy use, with those with dementia using significantly fewer compensatory strategies as compared to individuals with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Greater levels of compensation were related to better cognitive functions (memory and executive function) and functional abilities, as well as slower rates of cognitive and functional decline over time. Importantly, higher levels of compensation were associated with less functional difficulties and subsequently slower rate of functional decline independent of the level of cognitive impairment.Conclusions: Engagement in compensatory strategies among older adults has important implications for prolonging functional independence, even in those with declining cognitive functioning. Results suggest that the revised EComp is likely to be useful in measuring cognitively based compensation in older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-313
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020

Keywords

  • Activities of daily living
  • Dementia
  • Executive function
  • Factor analysis
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Statistical
  • Surveys and questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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