The Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Autoimmunity in Selective IgA Deficiency

David D. Odineal, M. Eric Gershwin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency, defined as an isolated deficiency of IgA (less than 0.07 g/L). Although the majority of people born with IgA deficiency lead normal lives without significant pathology, there is nonetheless a significant association of IgA deficiency with mucosal infection, increased risks of atopic disease, and a higher prevalence of autoimmune disease. To explain these phenomena, we have performed an extensive literature review to define the geoepidemiology of IgA deficiency and particularly the relative risks for developing systemic lupus erythematosus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and vitiligo; these diseases have strong data to support an association. We also note weaker associations with scleroderma, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Minimal if any associations are noted with myasthenia gravis, lichen planus, and multiple sclerosis. Finally, more recent data provide clues on the possible immunologic mechanisms that lead to the association of IgA deficiency and autoimmunity; these lessons are important for understanding the etiology of autoimmune disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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IgA Deficiency
Autoimmunity
Epidemiology
Autoimmune Diseases
Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Lichen Planus
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Vitiligo
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Juvenile Arthritis
Myasthenia Gravis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Celiac Disease
Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Ulcerative Colitis
Crohn Disease
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Keywords

  • Atopy
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Autoimmunity
  • Autoinflammatory disease
  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

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abstract = "Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency, defined as an isolated deficiency of IgA (less than 0.07 g/L). Although the majority of people born with IgA deficiency lead normal lives without significant pathology, there is nonetheless a significant association of IgA deficiency with mucosal infection, increased risks of atopic disease, and a higher prevalence of autoimmune disease. To explain these phenomena, we have performed an extensive literature review to define the geoepidemiology of IgA deficiency and particularly the relative risks for developing systemic lupus erythematosus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and vitiligo; these diseases have strong data to support an association. We also note weaker associations with scleroderma, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Minimal if any associations are noted with myasthenia gravis, lichen planus, and multiple sclerosis. Finally, more recent data provide clues on the possible immunologic mechanisms that lead to the association of IgA deficiency and autoimmunity; these lessons are important for understanding the etiology of autoimmune disease.",
keywords = "Atopy, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, Autoinflammatory disease, Primary immunodeficiency, Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency",
author = "Odineal, {David D.} and Gershwin, {M. Eric}",
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N2 - Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency, defined as an isolated deficiency of IgA (less than 0.07 g/L). Although the majority of people born with IgA deficiency lead normal lives without significant pathology, there is nonetheless a significant association of IgA deficiency with mucosal infection, increased risks of atopic disease, and a higher prevalence of autoimmune disease. To explain these phenomena, we have performed an extensive literature review to define the geoepidemiology of IgA deficiency and particularly the relative risks for developing systemic lupus erythematosus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and vitiligo; these diseases have strong data to support an association. We also note weaker associations with scleroderma, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Minimal if any associations are noted with myasthenia gravis, lichen planus, and multiple sclerosis. Finally, more recent data provide clues on the possible immunologic mechanisms that lead to the association of IgA deficiency and autoimmunity; these lessons are important for understanding the etiology of autoimmune disease.

AB - Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency, defined as an isolated deficiency of IgA (less than 0.07 g/L). Although the majority of people born with IgA deficiency lead normal lives without significant pathology, there is nonetheless a significant association of IgA deficiency with mucosal infection, increased risks of atopic disease, and a higher prevalence of autoimmune disease. To explain these phenomena, we have performed an extensive literature review to define the geoepidemiology of IgA deficiency and particularly the relative risks for developing systemic lupus erythematosus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and vitiligo; these diseases have strong data to support an association. We also note weaker associations with scleroderma, celiac disease, autoimmune hepatitis, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Minimal if any associations are noted with myasthenia gravis, lichen planus, and multiple sclerosis. Finally, more recent data provide clues on the possible immunologic mechanisms that lead to the association of IgA deficiency and autoimmunity; these lessons are important for understanding the etiology of autoimmune disease.

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