The effects of vitamin d deficiency and insufficiency on the endocrine and paracrine systems

Patricia T. Alpert, Ulfat Shaikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Individuals are capable of producing vitamin D with proper exposure to sunlight. However, several factors can interfere with the effectiveness of this process. Most sunscreens filter out UVB light, thus inhibiting vitamin D production. Individuals with more darkly pigmented skin have greater difficulty producing vitamin D because melanin acts as an effective natural sunscreen, requiring longer sun exposure to produce an adequate daily allotment of vitamin D. Additionally, solely breastfed infants whose mothers suffered from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency when pregnant have smaller reserves of the nutrient and are at greater risk of developing nutritional rickets. Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. Long-term vitamin D insufficiency can lead to paracrine effects such as type 1 diabetes, cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This article reviews the current literature on vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and their relation to different disease states. Potential areas for research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-129
Number of pages13
JournalBiological Research for Nursing
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2007

Fingerprint

Avitaminosis
Endocrine System
Vitamin D
Vitamin D Deficiency
Sunscreening Agents
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Sunlight
Melanins
Solar System
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Osteoporosis
Multiple Sclerosis
Mothers
Light
Food
Skin
Research
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Ergocalciferol
  • Hypovitaminosis D
  • Nutritional rickets
  • Osteomalacia
  • Vitamin D deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Research and Theory

Cite this

The effects of vitamin d deficiency and insufficiency on the endocrine and paracrine systems. / Alpert, Patricia T.; Shaikh, Ulfat.

In: Biological Research for Nursing, Vol. 9, No. 2, 10.2007, p. 117-129.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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