The effect of the phase of transmission on contrast agent echoes

Karen Morgan, Michâlakis Averkiou, Katherine Ferrara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Ultrasound contrast agents consist of a gas bubble, encapsulated by a shell for stabilization. The shell dampens the fluctuations in the bubble radius when insonifled. The detection of contrast microbubbles during a medical examination can indicate whether a region is perfused with blood. In this paper, we consider the effect of the phase of Bonification signal on the backscatter by the bubble echo. By transmitting two short pulses of ultrasound with opposite phases, we demonstrate that a unique pair of echoes can be generated by a single microbubble, and that the properties of these echoes may be useful in the discrimination of bubble and tissue echoes. Specifically, the significant echo amplitude begins coincident with each transmitted rarefactional half-cycle, and the mean frequency of this echo depends on the transmitted phase. \Vhen rarefaction is transmitted first for a 2.25 MHz signal, the mean frequency is 0.8 MHz higher for an albumin-shelled bubble and 0.9 MHz higher for a lipid-shelled bubble. The experimental results agree with the predictions of the Gilmore-Akulichev equation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)872-875
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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