The effectiveness of haloperidol pretreatment in preventing the toxic effects of high doses of amphetamine and cocaine was studied in rats. In this model, toxic effects were induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of amphetamine 75 mg/kg (100% death rate) or cocaine 70 mg/kg (82% death rate). Haloperidol failed to prevent amphetamine-induced seizures, but did lower the mortality rate at most doses tested. Haloperidol decreased the incidence of cocaine-induced seizures at the two highest doses, but the lowering of the mortality rate did not reach statistical significance at any dose. These data suggest a protective role for the central dopamine blocker haloperidol against death from high-dose amphetamine exposure without reducing the incidence of seizures. In contrast, haloperidol demonstrated an ability to reduce cocaine-induced seizures without significantly reducing mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine