Objective While patient eligibility for carotid artery stenting (CAS) is well established, the intraoperative technique remains widely varied. The decision to perform poststent ballooning (PSB) is operator-dependent and often influenced by the interpretation of poststent angiography. While visually creating a greater luminal diameter, it is unclear whether PSB has immediate risks or long-term benefits. The purpose of this report is to determine whether PSB has any effects on periprocedural hemodynamic stability. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients that underwent CAS between 2005 and 2012 at a tertiary care center was performed. The primary end point was hemodynamic instability, defined as bradycardia (a heart rate of <60 beats/min) or hypotension (systolic blood pressure of <90 mm Hg) during the intraoperative or postoperative period. Binary logistic regression model was performed to determine the effect of PSB on the occurrence of hemodynamic instability, adjusting for patient's age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, recent myocardial infarction, previous carotid endarterectomy, high-risk status, and symptomatic status. Results A total of 103 (51 men and 52 women) patients underwent placement of a unilateral carotid stent between 2005 and 2012 at our institution. All patients underwent prestent dilatation. However, 70% (n = 72) underwent PSB whereas 30% (n = 31) did not. PSB was a significant predictor of hemodynamic depression (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-11; P <.01). Symptomatic status, recent myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease were associated with a length of stay exceeding 24 hours postoperatively (OR, 6.6; P <.01, OR, 6.1; P <.01, OR, 5.4; P =.04, and OR, 9.3; P <.01, respectively). At follow-up, 97% (83/86) stents were patent. Two stent stenoses occurred in the group that received PSB, while one stent stenosis occurred in the group that did not receive PSB. Conclusions PSB increases the risk of intra- or postoperative hemodynamic depression in CAS and might increase the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Given the added complications and the lack of evidence supporting long term patency, PSB should be only selectively used.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine