The effect of anesthetic time and concentration on blood gases, acid-base status, and electrolytes in koi (Cyprinus Carpio) anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222)

Christine A. Parker-Graham, Kelly M. Lima, Esteban Soto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Anesthesia is commonly employed in aquatic medicine to facilitate physical exams, diagnostics, and surgical interventions. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) is the most commonly used anesthetic for fish and is currently the only anesthetic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine for food-producing fish. Despite the frequency of anesthetic procedures in fish, anesthetic monitoring remains rudimentary in many facilities. This study evaluated the impact on blood gases, acid-base balance, and electrolytes in koi (Cyprinus carpio) anesthetized at concentrations of 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L MS-222. Blood samples from 25 fish per treatment were collected at 5 and 20 min of anesthetic immersion. Forty-nine of 50 fish recovered uneventfully from anesthesia; one fish did not recover and was euthanatized. Results showed significant increases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) (P = 0.006) and hyperglycemia (P = <0.0001) with increasing anesthetic concentration and time under anesthesia and a significant decrease in partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) with increased anesthetic time (P = 0.021). There were several electrolyte changes observed with both increasing anesthetic time and concentration. All electrolytes except potassium remained within published reference ranges for koi, while potassium showed a significant decrease in concentration associated with anesthetic time and concentration. The results of this study indicate that MS-222 at 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L represent safe anesthetic concentrations for koi undergoing minimally invasive diagnostics; however, koi anesthetized with MS-222 at a concentration of 150 mg/L experienced more significant changes in blood gases, acid-base balance, and electrolyte concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-109
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume51
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 17 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Blood gas
  • Cyprinus carpio
  • Electrolytes
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Koi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

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