The cardiopulmonary effects of dobutamine and norepinephrine in isoflurane-anesthetized foals

Cary Craig, Steve C. Haskins, Susan Hildebrand

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26 Scopus citations


To evaluate the cardiovascular effects of norepinephrine (NE) and dobutamine (DB) in isoflurane-anesthetized foals. Prospective laboratory study. Norepinephrine (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40 μg kg-1 minute -1) and dobutamine (2.5, 5.0, and 10 μg kg-1 minute-1) were alternately administered to seven healthy, 1- to 2-week-old isoflurane-anesthetized foals. Arterial and pulmonary arterial blood pressure, right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, heart rate, body temperature, cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous blood pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen [arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and mixed venous partial pressure of oxygen ()], and packed cell volume were measured. Standard base excess, bicarbonate concentration, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac index (CI), stroke volume, left and right stroke work indices, oxygen delivery (ḊO2), consumption, and extraction were calculated. Norepinephrine infusion resulted in significant increases in arterial and pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, and PaO2; heart rate was decreased. Dobutamine infusion resulted in significant increases in heart rate, stroke volume index, CI, and arterial and pulmonary arterial blood pressure. Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices were decreased while the ventricular stroke work indices increased. The PaO2 decreased while ḊO2 and oxygen consumption increased. Oxygen extraction decreased and increased. Norepinephrine primarily augments arterial blood pressure while decreasing CI. Dobutamine primarily augments CI with only modest increases in arterial blood pressure. Both NE and DB could be useful in the hemodynamic management of anesthetized foals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-387
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007


  • Blood pressure
  • Cardiac output
  • Sympathomimetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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