The broader autism phenotype in infancy: When does it emerge?

Sally J Ozonoff, Gregory S. Young, Ashleigh Belding, Monique Hill, Alesha Hill, Ted Hutman, Scott Johnson, Meghan Miller, Sally J Rogers, A. J. Schwichtenberg, Marybeth Steinfeld, Ana-Maria Iosif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

125 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective This study had 3 goals, which were to examine the following: the frequency of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, in high-risk infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); the age at which atypical development is first evident; and which developmental domains are affected. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 294 high-risk infants and 116 low-risk infants. Participants were tested at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. At the final visit, outcome was classified as ASD, Typical Development (TD), or Non-TD (defined as elevated Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS] score, low Mullen Scale scores, or both). Results Of the high-risk group, 28% were classified as Non-TD at 36 months of age. Growth curve models demonstrated that the Non-TD group could not be distinguished from the other groups at 6 months of age, but differed significantly from the Low-Risk TD group by 12 months on multiple measures. The Non-TD group demonstrated atypical development in cognitive, motor, language, and social domains, with differences particularly prominent in the social-communication domain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that features of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, are detectable by the first birthday and affect development in multiple domains. This highlights the necessity for close developmental surveillance of infant siblings of children with ASD, along with implementation of appropriate interventions as needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume53
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Autistic Disorder
Phenotype
Siblings
Appointments and Schedules
Language
Communication
Observation
Growth
Autism Spectrum Disorder

Keywords

  • autism spectrum disorder
  • broader autism phenotype
  • infancy
  • siblings
  • social-communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

The broader autism phenotype in infancy : When does it emerge? / Ozonoff, Sally J; Young, Gregory S.; Belding, Ashleigh; Hill, Monique; Hill, Alesha; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Miller, Meghan; Rogers, Sally J; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Steinfeld, Marybeth; Iosif, Ana-Maria.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ozonoff, Sally J ; Young, Gregory S. ; Belding, Ashleigh ; Hill, Monique ; Hill, Alesha ; Hutman, Ted ; Johnson, Scott ; Miller, Meghan ; Rogers, Sally J ; Schwichtenberg, A. J. ; Steinfeld, Marybeth ; Iosif, Ana-Maria. / The broader autism phenotype in infancy : When does it emerge?. In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2014 ; Vol. 53, No. 4.
@article{153696bd1fa7464185cb79ce40f91d93,
title = "The broader autism phenotype in infancy: When does it emerge?",
abstract = "Objective This study had 3 goals, which were to examine the following: the frequency of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, in high-risk infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); the age at which atypical development is first evident; and which developmental domains are affected. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 294 high-risk infants and 116 low-risk infants. Participants were tested at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. At the final visit, outcome was classified as ASD, Typical Development (TD), or Non-TD (defined as elevated Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS] score, low Mullen Scale scores, or both). Results Of the high-risk group, 28{\%} were classified as Non-TD at 36 months of age. Growth curve models demonstrated that the Non-TD group could not be distinguished from the other groups at 6 months of age, but differed significantly from the Low-Risk TD group by 12 months on multiple measures. The Non-TD group demonstrated atypical development in cognitive, motor, language, and social domains, with differences particularly prominent in the social-communication domain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that features of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, are detectable by the first birthday and affect development in multiple domains. This highlights the necessity for close developmental surveillance of infant siblings of children with ASD, along with implementation of appropriate interventions as needed.",
keywords = "autism spectrum disorder, broader autism phenotype, infancy, siblings, social-communication",
author = "Ozonoff, {Sally J} and Young, {Gregory S.} and Ashleigh Belding and Monique Hill and Alesha Hill and Ted Hutman and Scott Johnson and Meghan Miller and Rogers, {Sally J} and Schwichtenberg, {A. J.} and Marybeth Steinfeld and Ana-Maria Iosif",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.020",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "53",
journal = "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry",
issn = "0890-8567",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The broader autism phenotype in infancy

T2 - When does it emerge?

AU - Ozonoff, Sally J

AU - Young, Gregory S.

AU - Belding, Ashleigh

AU - Hill, Monique

AU - Hill, Alesha

AU - Hutman, Ted

AU - Johnson, Scott

AU - Miller, Meghan

AU - Rogers, Sally J

AU - Schwichtenberg, A. J.

AU - Steinfeld, Marybeth

AU - Iosif, Ana-Maria

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Objective This study had 3 goals, which were to examine the following: the frequency of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, in high-risk infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); the age at which atypical development is first evident; and which developmental domains are affected. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 294 high-risk infants and 116 low-risk infants. Participants were tested at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. At the final visit, outcome was classified as ASD, Typical Development (TD), or Non-TD (defined as elevated Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS] score, low Mullen Scale scores, or both). Results Of the high-risk group, 28% were classified as Non-TD at 36 months of age. Growth curve models demonstrated that the Non-TD group could not be distinguished from the other groups at 6 months of age, but differed significantly from the Low-Risk TD group by 12 months on multiple measures. The Non-TD group demonstrated atypical development in cognitive, motor, language, and social domains, with differences particularly prominent in the social-communication domain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that features of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, are detectable by the first birthday and affect development in multiple domains. This highlights the necessity for close developmental surveillance of infant siblings of children with ASD, along with implementation of appropriate interventions as needed.

AB - Objective This study had 3 goals, which were to examine the following: the frequency of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, in high-risk infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); the age at which atypical development is first evident; and which developmental domains are affected. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 294 high-risk infants and 116 low-risk infants. Participants were tested at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age. At the final visit, outcome was classified as ASD, Typical Development (TD), or Non-TD (defined as elevated Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS] score, low Mullen Scale scores, or both). Results Of the high-risk group, 28% were classified as Non-TD at 36 months of age. Growth curve models demonstrated that the Non-TD group could not be distinguished from the other groups at 6 months of age, but differed significantly from the Low-Risk TD group by 12 months on multiple measures. The Non-TD group demonstrated atypical development in cognitive, motor, language, and social domains, with differences particularly prominent in the social-communication domain. Conclusions These results demonstrate that features of atypical development, consistent with the broader autism phenotype, are detectable by the first birthday and affect development in multiple domains. This highlights the necessity for close developmental surveillance of infant siblings of children with ASD, along with implementation of appropriate interventions as needed.

KW - autism spectrum disorder

KW - broader autism phenotype

KW - infancy

KW - siblings

KW - social-communication

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84896493209&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84896493209&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.020

DO - 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.020

M3 - Article

C2 - 24655649

AN - SCOPUS:84896493209

VL - 53

JO - Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

JF - Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

SN - 0890-8567

IS - 4

ER -