Objective: To describe the application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in advanced oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) and to discuss the benefits of this modality in surgical planning, student and resident training, and client education. Study design: Retrospective case series. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n=28) and cats (n=4) with 3D printing models of the skulls. Methods: The medical records of 32 cases with 3D printing prior to major OMFS were reviewed. Results: Indications for 3D printing included preoperative planning for mandibular reconstruction after mandibulectomy (n=12 dogs) or defect nonunion fracture (n=6 dogs, 2 cats), mapping of ostectomy location for temporomandibular joint ankylosis or pseudoankylosis (n=4 dogs), assessment of palatal defects (n=2 dogs, 1 cat), improved understanding of complex anatomy in cases of neoplasia located in challenging locations (n=2 dogs, 1 cat), and in cases of altered anatomy secondary to trauma (n=2 dogs). Conclusion: In the authors' experience, 3D printed models serve as excellent tools for OMFS planning and resident training. Furthermore, 3D printed models are a valuable resource to improve clients' understanding of the pet's disorder and the recommended treatment. Clinical relevance: Three-dimensional printed models should be considered viable tools for surgical planning, resident training, and client education in candidates for complex OMFS.
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