The acid-base effects of free water removal from and addition to oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood

An in vitro model of contraction alkalosis and dilutional acidosis

Katrina Hopper, Steve C. Haskins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study was conducted to describe the acid-base effects of hydration and dehydration of oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood. Whole blood samples from goats were equilibrated in a tonometer to a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 40 mm Hg and oxygen (PO2) of 100 mm Hg or 30 mm Hg. Contraction alkalosis was achieved by evaporating blood samples to 80% of the original volume. Dilutional acidosis was achieved by increasing the blood sample volume by 20% by addition of sterile water. Acid-base, electrolyte, hemoglobin, lactate, albumin, and phosphorus concentrations were measured at baseline and after dehydration or hydration. A 20% dehydration of whole blood caused a 22% increase in sodium concentration and a significant increase in base excess of +3 mEq/L (P < 0.01); bicarbonate concentration increased only 7% to 9%. A concurrent increase was found in phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin, and lactate concentrations. A 20% dilution of whole blood caused a 21% decrease in sodium concentration and a significant decrease in base excess of -5 mEq/L (P < 0.01) with an 11% to 15% decrease in bicarbonate concentration. A concurrent decrease was found in phosphorus, albumin, and hemoglobin concentrations. No significant difference was observed between the acid-base effects on oxygenated versus deoxygenated blood in any experiment. Dilutional acidosis and contraction alkalosis of whole blood are complex acid-base disorders resulting from direct changes in bicarbonate concentration in combination with changes in the concentration of weak plasma acids and buffering reactions. Therefore, bicarbonate concentration does not change to the same degree as the magnitude of contraction or dilution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-37
Number of pages9
JournalTranslational Research
Volume157
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2011

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Alkalosis
Acidosis
Blood
Acids
Bicarbonates
Water
Dehydration
Phosphorus
Albumins
Hemoglobins
Lactic Acid
Hydration
Dilution
Sodium
Partial Pressure
In Vitro Techniques
Blood Volume
Goats
Carbon Dioxide
Electrolytes

Keywords

  • ABE
  • actual base excess
  • AG
  • anion gap
  • D100
  • D30
  • dehydration of deoxygenated whole blood trial
  • dehydration of oxygenated whole blood trial
  • hydration of deoxygenated whole blood trial
  • hydration of oxygenated whole blood trial
  • pH adjusted to a PCO of 40 mm Hg at the predetermined ABE
  • pHadj
  • SID
  • SIDapp
  • SIDeff
  • SIG
  • standardized bicarbonate for a PCO of 40mm Hg at the predetermined pH
  • stHCO
  • strong ion difference
  • strong ion difference apparent
  • strong ion difference effective
  • strong ion gap
  • W100
  • W30

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

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title = "The acid-base effects of free water removal from and addition to oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood: An in vitro model of contraction alkalosis and dilutional acidosis",
abstract = "This study was conducted to describe the acid-base effects of hydration and dehydration of oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood. Whole blood samples from goats were equilibrated in a tonometer to a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 40 mm Hg and oxygen (PO2) of 100 mm Hg or 30 mm Hg. Contraction alkalosis was achieved by evaporating blood samples to 80{\%} of the original volume. Dilutional acidosis was achieved by increasing the blood sample volume by 20{\%} by addition of sterile water. Acid-base, electrolyte, hemoglobin, lactate, albumin, and phosphorus concentrations were measured at baseline and after dehydration or hydration. A 20{\%} dehydration of whole blood caused a 22{\%} increase in sodium concentration and a significant increase in base excess of +3 mEq/L (P < 0.01); bicarbonate concentration increased only 7{\%} to 9{\%}. A concurrent increase was found in phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin, and lactate concentrations. A 20{\%} dilution of whole blood caused a 21{\%} decrease in sodium concentration and a significant decrease in base excess of -5 mEq/L (P < 0.01) with an 11{\%} to 15{\%} decrease in bicarbonate concentration. A concurrent decrease was found in phosphorus, albumin, and hemoglobin concentrations. No significant difference was observed between the acid-base effects on oxygenated versus deoxygenated blood in any experiment. Dilutional acidosis and contraction alkalosis of whole blood are complex acid-base disorders resulting from direct changes in bicarbonate concentration in combination with changes in the concentration of weak plasma acids and buffering reactions. Therefore, bicarbonate concentration does not change to the same degree as the magnitude of contraction or dilution.",
keywords = "ABE, actual base excess, AG, anion gap, D100, D30, dehydration of deoxygenated whole blood trial, dehydration of oxygenated whole blood trial, hydration of deoxygenated whole blood trial, hydration of oxygenated whole blood trial, pH adjusted to a PCO of 40 mm Hg at the predetermined ABE, pHadj, SID, SIDapp, SIDeff, SIG, standardized bicarbonate for a PCO of 40mm Hg at the predetermined pH, stHCO, strong ion difference, strong ion difference apparent, strong ion difference effective, strong ion gap, W100, W30",
author = "Katrina Hopper and Haskins, {Steve C.}",
year = "2011",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The acid-base effects of free water removal from and addition to oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood

T2 - An in vitro model of contraction alkalosis and dilutional acidosis

AU - Hopper, Katrina

AU - Haskins, Steve C.

PY - 2011/1

Y1 - 2011/1

N2 - This study was conducted to describe the acid-base effects of hydration and dehydration of oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood. Whole blood samples from goats were equilibrated in a tonometer to a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 40 mm Hg and oxygen (PO2) of 100 mm Hg or 30 mm Hg. Contraction alkalosis was achieved by evaporating blood samples to 80% of the original volume. Dilutional acidosis was achieved by increasing the blood sample volume by 20% by addition of sterile water. Acid-base, electrolyte, hemoglobin, lactate, albumin, and phosphorus concentrations were measured at baseline and after dehydration or hydration. A 20% dehydration of whole blood caused a 22% increase in sodium concentration and a significant increase in base excess of +3 mEq/L (P < 0.01); bicarbonate concentration increased only 7% to 9%. A concurrent increase was found in phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin, and lactate concentrations. A 20% dilution of whole blood caused a 21% decrease in sodium concentration and a significant decrease in base excess of -5 mEq/L (P < 0.01) with an 11% to 15% decrease in bicarbonate concentration. A concurrent decrease was found in phosphorus, albumin, and hemoglobin concentrations. No significant difference was observed between the acid-base effects on oxygenated versus deoxygenated blood in any experiment. Dilutional acidosis and contraction alkalosis of whole blood are complex acid-base disorders resulting from direct changes in bicarbonate concentration in combination with changes in the concentration of weak plasma acids and buffering reactions. Therefore, bicarbonate concentration does not change to the same degree as the magnitude of contraction or dilution.

AB - This study was conducted to describe the acid-base effects of hydration and dehydration of oxygenated and deoxygenated whole blood. Whole blood samples from goats were equilibrated in a tonometer to a partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 40 mm Hg and oxygen (PO2) of 100 mm Hg or 30 mm Hg. Contraction alkalosis was achieved by evaporating blood samples to 80% of the original volume. Dilutional acidosis was achieved by increasing the blood sample volume by 20% by addition of sterile water. Acid-base, electrolyte, hemoglobin, lactate, albumin, and phosphorus concentrations were measured at baseline and after dehydration or hydration. A 20% dehydration of whole blood caused a 22% increase in sodium concentration and a significant increase in base excess of +3 mEq/L (P < 0.01); bicarbonate concentration increased only 7% to 9%. A concurrent increase was found in phosphorus, albumin, hemoglobin, and lactate concentrations. A 20% dilution of whole blood caused a 21% decrease in sodium concentration and a significant decrease in base excess of -5 mEq/L (P < 0.01) with an 11% to 15% decrease in bicarbonate concentration. A concurrent decrease was found in phosphorus, albumin, and hemoglobin concentrations. No significant difference was observed between the acid-base effects on oxygenated versus deoxygenated blood in any experiment. Dilutional acidosis and contraction alkalosis of whole blood are complex acid-base disorders resulting from direct changes in bicarbonate concentration in combination with changes in the concentration of weak plasma acids and buffering reactions. Therefore, bicarbonate concentration does not change to the same degree as the magnitude of contraction or dilution.

KW - ABE

KW - actual base excess

KW - AG

KW - anion gap

KW - D100

KW - D30

KW - dehydration of deoxygenated whole blood trial

KW - dehydration of oxygenated whole blood trial

KW - hydration of deoxygenated whole blood trial

KW - hydration of oxygenated whole blood trial

KW - pH adjusted to a PCO of 40 mm Hg at the predetermined ABE

KW - pHadj

KW - SID

KW - SIDapp

KW - SIDeff

KW - SIG

KW - standardized bicarbonate for a PCO of 40mm Hg at the predetermined pH

KW - stHCO

KW - strong ion difference

KW - strong ion difference apparent

KW - strong ion difference effective

KW - strong ion gap

KW - W100

KW - W30

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U2 - 10.1016/j.trsl.2010.09.006

DO - 10.1016/j.trsl.2010.09.006

M3 - Article

VL - 157

SP - 29

EP - 37

JO - Translational Research

JF - Translational Research

SN - 1931-5244

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