Temporomandibular malformations in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) fetus following maternal ingestion of thalidomide

L. M. Newman, Andrew G Hendrickx

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Structural abnormalities of the temporomandibular region were seen and described in the fetal bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) after maternal ingestion of thalidone. A single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of thalidomide was given on day 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 or 29 mg/kg on day 25 or 28 of gestation to 25 pregnant monkeys (day of mating = 0). The skeletons, processed and stained with alizarin red S, were examined for gross changes in configuration of craniofacial bones. Temporomandibular defects, in varying severity, were seen in four 70-day-old and seven 100-day-old fetuses associated with a single treatment between day 24 and day 28. The highest risk appeared to occur following treatment on day 25 (4/5) and the lowest on day 28 (2/8). Characteristic expression of the defects included temporozygomatic hyperplasia involving the articular tubercle and postglenoid process and mandibular hypoplasia, primarily of the condyles and the angular and coronoid process. Micrognathia, apertognathia, and partial extraarticular ankylosis were seen. Although the sensitivity periods of the temporomandibular and ear regions seem to overlap and the embryonic origins are similar, the defects of each region appeared to be independent. Although the ear demonstrated a definite temporal relationship characterized by a decrease in severity in the expression of the ear malformations with respect to increased gestational age at the time of thalidomide insult, the temporomandibular region failed to exhibit a specific pattern. Although the temporozygomatic hyperplasia was dissimilar to any reported human condition, the mandibular changes were similar.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-157
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics


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