Temporal variability of urinary levels of nonpersistent insecticides in adult men

John D. Meeker, Dana B. Barr, Louise Ryan, Robert F. Herrick, Deborah H Bennett, Roberto Bravo, Russ Hauser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Widespread application of contemporary-use insecticides results in low-level exposure for a majority of the population through a variety of pathways. Urinary insecticide biomarkers account for all exposure pathways, but failure to account for temporal within-subject variability of urinary levels can lead to exposure misclassification. To examine temporal variability in urinary markers of contemporary-use insecticides, nine repeated urine samples were collected over 3 months from 10 men participating in an ongoing study of male reproductive health. These 90 samples were analyzed for urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY)) and carbaryl (1-naphthol (1N)). Volume- based (unadjusted), as well as creatinine (CRE)- and specific gravity (SG)-adjusted concentrations were measured. TCPY had low reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.15 and 0.21, while IN was moderately reliable with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.55 and 0.61. When the 10 men were divided into tertiles based on 3-month geometric mean TCPY and 1N levels, a single urine sample performed adequately in classifying a subject into the highest or lowest exposure tertiles. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.44 to 0.84 for TCPY and from 0.56 to 0.89 for IN. Some differences in the results between unadjusted metabolite concentrations and concentrations adjusted for CRE and SG were observed. Questionnaires were used to assess diet in the 24 h preceding the collection of each urine sample. In mixed-effects models, TCPY was significantly associated with season as well as with consuming grapes and cheese, while IN levels were associated with consuming strawberries. In conclusion, although a single sample adequately predicted longer-term average exposure, a second sample collected at least 1 month following the first sample would reduce exposure measurement error.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-281
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume15
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Insecticides
insecticide
Naphthol
Metabolites
Density (specific gravity)
Specific Gravity
urine
Cheeses
Biomarkers
Nutrition
Creatinine
Measurement errors
Urine
metabolite
Carbaryl
Chlorpyrifos
Fragaria
Urine Specimen Collection
Health
gravity

Keywords

  • Biomonitoring
  • Carbaryl
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • Exposure assessment
  • Insecticides
  • Measurement error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Temporal variability of urinary levels of nonpersistent insecticides in adult men. / Meeker, John D.; Barr, Dana B.; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F.; Bennett, Deborah H; Bravo, Roberto; Hauser, Russ.

In: Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 05.2005, p. 271-281.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meeker, John D. ; Barr, Dana B. ; Ryan, Louise ; Herrick, Robert F. ; Bennett, Deborah H ; Bravo, Roberto ; Hauser, Russ. / Temporal variability of urinary levels of nonpersistent insecticides in adult men. In: Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 2005 ; Vol. 15, No. 3. pp. 271-281.
@article{b8973894a4d0473cbe70cb9c66076666,
title = "Temporal variability of urinary levels of nonpersistent insecticides in adult men",
abstract = "Widespread application of contemporary-use insecticides results in low-level exposure for a majority of the population through a variety of pathways. Urinary insecticide biomarkers account for all exposure pathways, but failure to account for temporal within-subject variability of urinary levels can lead to exposure misclassification. To examine temporal variability in urinary markers of contemporary-use insecticides, nine repeated urine samples were collected over 3 months from 10 men participating in an ongoing study of male reproductive health. These 90 samples were analyzed for urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY)) and carbaryl (1-naphthol (1N)). Volume- based (unadjusted), as well as creatinine (CRE)- and specific gravity (SG)-adjusted concentrations were measured. TCPY had low reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.15 and 0.21, while IN was moderately reliable with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.55 and 0.61. When the 10 men were divided into tertiles based on 3-month geometric mean TCPY and 1N levels, a single urine sample performed adequately in classifying a subject into the highest or lowest exposure tertiles. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.44 to 0.84 for TCPY and from 0.56 to 0.89 for IN. Some differences in the results between unadjusted metabolite concentrations and concentrations adjusted for CRE and SG were observed. Questionnaires were used to assess diet in the 24 h preceding the collection of each urine sample. In mixed-effects models, TCPY was significantly associated with season as well as with consuming grapes and cheese, while IN levels were associated with consuming strawberries. In conclusion, although a single sample adequately predicted longer-term average exposure, a second sample collected at least 1 month following the first sample would reduce exposure measurement error.",
keywords = "Biomonitoring, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Exposure assessment, Insecticides, Measurement error",
author = "Meeker, {John D.} and Barr, {Dana B.} and Louise Ryan and Herrick, {Robert F.} and Bennett, {Deborah H} and Roberto Bravo and Russ Hauser",
year = "2005",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1038/sj.jea.7500402",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "271--281",
journal = "Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology",
issn = "1559-0631",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Temporal variability of urinary levels of nonpersistent insecticides in adult men

AU - Meeker, John D.

AU - Barr, Dana B.

AU - Ryan, Louise

AU - Herrick, Robert F.

AU - Bennett, Deborah H

AU - Bravo, Roberto

AU - Hauser, Russ

PY - 2005/5

Y1 - 2005/5

N2 - Widespread application of contemporary-use insecticides results in low-level exposure for a majority of the population through a variety of pathways. Urinary insecticide biomarkers account for all exposure pathways, but failure to account for temporal within-subject variability of urinary levels can lead to exposure misclassification. To examine temporal variability in urinary markers of contemporary-use insecticides, nine repeated urine samples were collected over 3 months from 10 men participating in an ongoing study of male reproductive health. These 90 samples were analyzed for urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY)) and carbaryl (1-naphthol (1N)). Volume- based (unadjusted), as well as creatinine (CRE)- and specific gravity (SG)-adjusted concentrations were measured. TCPY had low reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.15 and 0.21, while IN was moderately reliable with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.55 and 0.61. When the 10 men were divided into tertiles based on 3-month geometric mean TCPY and 1N levels, a single urine sample performed adequately in classifying a subject into the highest or lowest exposure tertiles. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.44 to 0.84 for TCPY and from 0.56 to 0.89 for IN. Some differences in the results between unadjusted metabolite concentrations and concentrations adjusted for CRE and SG were observed. Questionnaires were used to assess diet in the 24 h preceding the collection of each urine sample. In mixed-effects models, TCPY was significantly associated with season as well as with consuming grapes and cheese, while IN levels were associated with consuming strawberries. In conclusion, although a single sample adequately predicted longer-term average exposure, a second sample collected at least 1 month following the first sample would reduce exposure measurement error.

AB - Widespread application of contemporary-use insecticides results in low-level exposure for a majority of the population through a variety of pathways. Urinary insecticide biomarkers account for all exposure pathways, but failure to account for temporal within-subject variability of urinary levels can lead to exposure misclassification. To examine temporal variability in urinary markers of contemporary-use insecticides, nine repeated urine samples were collected over 3 months from 10 men participating in an ongoing study of male reproductive health. These 90 samples were analyzed for urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY)) and carbaryl (1-naphthol (1N)). Volume- based (unadjusted), as well as creatinine (CRE)- and specific gravity (SG)-adjusted concentrations were measured. TCPY had low reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.15 and 0.21, while IN was moderately reliable with an intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.55 and 0.61. When the 10 men were divided into tertiles based on 3-month geometric mean TCPY and 1N levels, a single urine sample performed adequately in classifying a subject into the highest or lowest exposure tertiles. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.44 to 0.84 for TCPY and from 0.56 to 0.89 for IN. Some differences in the results between unadjusted metabolite concentrations and concentrations adjusted for CRE and SG were observed. Questionnaires were used to assess diet in the 24 h preceding the collection of each urine sample. In mixed-effects models, TCPY was significantly associated with season as well as with consuming grapes and cheese, while IN levels were associated with consuming strawberries. In conclusion, although a single sample adequately predicted longer-term average exposure, a second sample collected at least 1 month following the first sample would reduce exposure measurement error.

KW - Biomonitoring

KW - Carbaryl

KW - Chlorpyrifos

KW - Exposure assessment

KW - Insecticides

KW - Measurement error

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=20344364184&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=20344364184&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/sj.jea.7500402

DO - 10.1038/sj.jea.7500402

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 271

EP - 281

JO - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology

JF - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology

SN - 1559-0631

IS - 3

ER -