Temporal trends and determinants of serum concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances among Northern California mothers with a young child, 2009–2016

Kyunghoon Kim, Deborah H. Bennett, Antonia M. Calafat, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Hyeong Moo Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background/Objective: Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has changed since the early 2000s, in part, because of the phase-out and replacement of some long-chain PFAS. Studies of PFAS exposure and its temporal changes have been limited to date mostly to adults and pregnant women. We examined temporal trends and determinants of PFAS serum concentrations among mothers with a young child who participated in the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and Environment) case-control study. Methods: We quantified nine PFAS in serum samples collected from 2009 to 2016 in 450 Northern California mothers when their child was 2–5 years old. With five compounds that were detected in more than 50% of the samples, we performed multiple regression to estimate least square geometric means (LSGMs) of PFAS concentrations with adjustment for sampling year and other characteristics that may affect maternal concentrations (e.g., breastfeeding duration). We also used time-related regression coefficients to calculate percent changes over the study period. Results: LSGM concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) decreased over the study period [percent change (95% confidence interval): −10.7% (−12.7%, −8.7%); −10.8% (−12.9%, −8.5%); −8.0% (−10.5%, −5.5%), respectively]. On the other hand, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) showed mixed time trends. Among the selected covariates, longer breastfeeding duration was associated with decreased maternal serum concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that body burden of some common long-chain PFAS among California mothers with a young child decreased over the study period and that breastfeeding appears to contribute to the elimination of PFAS in lactating mothers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109491
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume186
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • Breastfeeding
  • Determinants
  • Mothers
  • PFAS
  • Serum
  • Temporal trend

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

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