Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors

P. M. Gaffney, C. Witte, D. L. Clifford, Denise Imai, T. D. O’Brien, M. Trejo, F. Liberta, K. Annamalai, M. Fändrich, E. Masliah, L. Munson, C. J. Sigurdson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34%) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n = 78 of 80] vs 56% [n = 45], respectively; P <.0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n = 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n = 7]; P =.01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P =.05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9; P =.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8; P <.0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3; P =.0003), captivity (OR = 5.1; P =.0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3; P =.01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)637-647
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary Pathology
Volume53
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Fingerprint

amyloidosis
Amyloidosis
amyloid
Amyloid
Islands
risk factors
odds ratio
Odds Ratio
Kidney
kidneys
foxes
Serum Amyloid A Protein
Urocyon littoralis
Nephritis
nephritis
age structure
Logistic Models
inflammation
Inflammation

Keywords

  • amyloid A
  • amyloidosis
  • endangered species
  • island fox
  • logistic regression
  • nephritis
  • serum amyloid A
  • Urocyon littoralis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Gaffney, P. M., Witte, C., Clifford, D. L., Imai, D., O’Brien, T. D., Trejo, M., ... Sigurdson, C. J. (2015). Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors. Veterinary Pathology, 53(3), 637-647. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985815604725

Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis) : Severity and Risk Factors. / Gaffney, P. M.; Witte, C.; Clifford, D. L.; Imai, Denise; O’Brien, T. D.; Trejo, M.; Liberta, F.; Annamalai, K.; Fändrich, M.; Masliah, E.; Munson, L.; Sigurdson, C. J.

In: Veterinary Pathology, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2015, p. 637-647.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gaffney, PM, Witte, C, Clifford, DL, Imai, D, O’Brien, TD, Trejo, M, Liberta, F, Annamalai, K, Fändrich, M, Masliah, E, Munson, L & Sigurdson, CJ 2015, 'Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors', Veterinary Pathology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 637-647. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985815604725
Gaffney, P. M. ; Witte, C. ; Clifford, D. L. ; Imai, Denise ; O’Brien, T. D. ; Trejo, M. ; Liberta, F. ; Annamalai, K. ; Fändrich, M. ; Masliah, E. ; Munson, L. ; Sigurdson, C. J. / Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis) : Severity and Risk Factors. In: Veterinary Pathology. 2015 ; Vol. 53, No. 3. pp. 637-647.
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abstract = "Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34{\%}) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98{\%} [n = 78 of 80] vs 56{\%} [n = 45], respectively; P <.0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19{\%} [n = 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7{\%} [n = 7]; P =.01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P =.05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9; P =.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8; P <.0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3; P =.0003), captivity (OR = 5.1; P =.0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3; P =.01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis.",
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